(Trinh Thanh Tung) Cornucopia Word Formation Collection 1

     Bài viết giới thiệu về tài liệu Blogchuyenanh Cornucopia Word Formation Collection 1 (Reference booklet for Advanced Learners) - English for gifted là tài liệu hữu ích cho các bạn học sinh giỏi THPT và học sinh giỏi Quốc gia môn Tiếng Anh trong quá trình ôn luyện kỳ thi Olympic 30/4 truyền thống. Tài liệu bao gồm 62 trang và được cung cấp miễn phí tại website Tài liệu diệu kỳ - một trang web chia sẻ kiến thức và tài liệu Tiếng Anh uy tín.

      Tài liệu Blogchuyenanh Cornucopia Word Formation Collection 1 (Reference booklet for Advanced Learners) cung cấp cho người đọc các kiến ​​thức về hình thành từ vựng và giúp các bạn nâng cao khả năng sử dụng từ vựng tiếng Anh của mình. Bên cạnh đó, tài liệu cũng cung cấp cho bạn những bài tập luyện tập để rèn luyện kỹ năng từ vựng của mình.

   Nếu bạn đang tìm kiếm tài liệu ôn luyện cho kỳ thi Olympic 30/4 truyền thống, tài liệu này sẽ là một nguồn tài liệu quý giá và đáng để tham khảo. Các tài liệu khác cũng được cung cấp miễn phí tại website Tài liệu diệu kỳ, bao gồm các tài liệu luyện thi cho học sinh giỏi THCS và THPT, ôn luyện học sinh chuyên Anh, bài tập từ vựng nâng cao cho học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh 9.

     Từ khóa: Tài liệu Blogchuyenanh Cornucopia Word Formation Collection 1; tài liệu ôn luyện Tiếng Anh; ôn luyện kỳ thi Olympic 30/4 truyền thống; học sinh giỏi THPT; học sinh giỏi Quốc gia; Tài liệu diệu kỳ.

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TRINH THANH TRUNG Cornucopi a WORD FORM TION COLLECTION 1 REFERENCE BOOKLET FOR ADVANCED Learners DONG NAI PUBLISHING HOUSE English for the Gifted TRINH THANH TRUNG Cornucopi WORD FORMTION COLLECTION 1 REFERENCE BOOKLET FOR ADVANCED Learners DONG NAI PUBLISHING HOUSE English for the Gifted To mom and sister, for your support and forbearance. To my students, for your proofreading and contributions. CORNUCOPIA α – WORD FORMATION (Collection 1) Subtitle: REFERENCE BOOKLET FOR ADVANCED LEARNERS Trịnh Thành Trung Mã ISBN: 978-604-52-6024-1 Chịu trách nhiệm xuất bản: GĐ – TBT. BÙI THỊ L M NGỌC Biên tập: Võ Thị Thanh Hiếu Trình bày: Trịnh Thành Trung Sửa bản in: Thanh Hiếu Bìa: Tôn Nữ Hoàng Anh Thực hiện liên doanh: Trịnh Thành Trung In: 2.000 bản. Khổ 14.5 x 20.5 cm. In tại: Công ty TNHH SX TM DV Viết Hữu Lam Sơn – 46 Đồng Nai, P. 15, Q. 10, TP. HCM. Số ĐKKHXB: 1692 – 2017/CXBIPH/1 – 139/ĐoN, Cục Xuất bản, In và Phát hành xác nhận ngày: 30/05/2017, Quyết định xuất bản số: 197B/QĐ- ĐoN, do NXB Đồng Nai cấp ngày 12/6/2017. In xong và nộp lưu chiểu: quý 3/2017. Nhà Xuất bản Đồng Nai, 1953J (số cũ 210) Nguyễn Ái Quốc, TP Biên Hòa, Đồng Nai Ban Biên tập: (0613) 825 292 − P Kinh doanh: 946 521 − P Kế toán: 946 520 Fax: (0613) 946 530 - Email: nxbdongnai@hcm.vnn.vn better 16 brain 21 break 15 absent 6 calculate 26 accent 15 cantor 15 accept 36 capable 36 access 37 capsule 36 accord 25 caption 36 act 20 captivate 36 actual 20 add 33 capture 36 cardiac 25 addict 27 case 36 Index of PreSCRIPTIONS abdicate 27 ablation 11 able 24 concord 25 condition 27 confection 9 conference 11 conifer 11 elegant 14 eligible 14 elite 14 elucidate 34 empire 18 contraception 36 encapsulate 36 contradict 27 cop 36 enchant 15 endow 33 enlighten 34 entity 6 essence 6 establish 38 copper 36 copy 9 cord 25 adjudge 27 cash 36 adjudicate 27 casual 36 corporate 3 counterfeit data 33 9 exact 20 exceed 37 adjure

27 catalogue 14 date 33 except 36 adjust 19 catch 36 decant 15 excess 37 administer 5 cater 36 decease 37 exhibit 24 affair 9 37 affect 9 agent 20 agile 20 ambiguous 20 cease 37 cede 37 cessation chant 15 charm 15 choir 15 choreograph chorus 15 cogent 20 cogitate 20 coil 14 collate 11 collect 14 comfit 9 defect 9 15 defer 11 deficit 9 defrag 15 delight 34 demented 7 false 40 fashion 9 fault 40 fax 9 feasible feature 9 9 feckless 9 fertile 11 dialect 14 dialogue 14 fetish 9 dictate 27 deceit 36 facility 9 deceive 36 fact 9 dedicate 27 fail 40 default 40 fall 40 agitate 20 ancestor 37 ancient 37 anthology 14 anticipate 36 apparatus 18 apparent 18 appear 18 apply 31 art 4 common 36 artifact 9 communal 36 asset 9 commune 36 associate 13 attempt 12 avenge 27 communicate 36 communist 36 community 36 bad 39 compare 18 bear 11 concede 37 differ 11 diffract 15 diminish 5 discord 25 disparage 18 dissociate 13 do 9 eclectic 14 forfeit 9 fracture fragile 15 fragment 15 frail 15 fringe 15 fury 10 future 6 gather 16 15 benefactor 9 conceit 36 edify 9 good 16 benefit 9 conceive 36 edit 33 habit 24 benevolent 16 concept 36 effect 9 heart 25 best 16 concession 37 elect 14 house 35 defeat 9 Index identify 9 lung 34 par 18 impair 18 magistrate 32 parade 18 imperative 18 malevolent 16 parent 18 record 25 recuperate refer 11 36 imperial 18 manufacture 9 participate 36 refract 15 incantation 15 master 32 peer 18 refrain 15 incapacitate 36 incentive 15 inception 36 incessant 37 index 27 indicate 27 memory 7 mental 7 perceive 36 rehab 24 perception 36 relate 11 mention 7 perfect 9 mince 5 mind 7 pontiff 9 remind 7 preach 27 indict 27 minister minor 5 5 precede 37 precept 36 inert 4 minute 5 predecessor 37 inhibit 24 infect 9 infer 11 infraction 15 infringe 15 inhabit 24 injure 27 innovate 22 intelligent 14 intercede 37 intercept 36 interdict 27 myth 5 navigate 20 mister 32 mistress 32 municipal munition 36 predicate 27 predict 27 36 predilection 14 prefect 9 myopia 5 prefer 11 mystify 5 prejudice 27 premiere 36 prepare 18 necessary necessitate need 37 neglect 14 37 present 6 37 prim 36 primal 36 scatter 30 primary 36 school 23 interest 6 neo 22 prime 36 interfere 11 new 22 judge 27 news 22 judicial 27 notice 9 jury 27 notify 9 juxtapose 19 notorious 9 lateral 11 nova 22 procedure 37 league 14 novel 22 proceed 37 primeval 36 primitive 36 prince 36 principal 36 principle 36 secede 37 secession 37 select 14 sense sentiment separate 18 sever 18 shallow 23 8 8 lecture 14 legend 14 novice 22 noviciate process 37 shatter 30 22 proficient 9 smoke 17 legible 14 novitiate 22 profit 9 social 13 legion 14 number 28 prohibit 24 stable 38 legume 14 numerous 28 putrefy 9 stage 38 lesson 14 occasion 36 recant 15 stay 38 lexical 14 offer 11 recede 37 stupid 9 light 34 office 9 receive 36 liquid 9 operate 9 reception 36 succeed 37 success 37 lucid 34 oviparous 18 recession 37 suffer 11 remember 7 reminisce 7 remunerate 36 render 33 renew 22 renovate 22 repair 18 represent 6 revenge 27 rotate 1 round 1 sacrilege 14 sad 9 satiate 9 satisfy 9 INDEX sufficient 9 sun 2 superstition 38 CONTENTS Entry 1 1 Resource 1 3 Practice 1A 7 susceptible 36 Practice 1B 9 tempt 12 tentative 12 Entry 2 11 theory 29 Resource 2 13 Practice 2A 19 Practice 2B 21 34 together 16 tradition 33 transact 20 transfer 11 translate 11 translucent Entry 3 23 Resource 3 25 Practice 3A 33 Practice 3B 35 transparent 18 valediction 27 Entry 4 37 Resource 4 39 vend 33 Practice 4A 47 vengeance 27 Practice 4B 49 vindicate 27 vituperative 18 viviparous 18 war 39 wealth 16 welcome 16 well 16 will 16 willing 16 worse 39 worst 39 Colour PRESCRIPTION red Resource 5 51 Practice 5 53 STUDY NOTES & QUIZZES Affixes 6,17 Compound nouns 17 Compounds with well- & ill- 18 List of -able and -ible adjectives 26 Compound adjectives 31 Misleading negatives Compound verbs Blended words 42 43 44 orange yellow, gold green, grass, grow blue brown purple pink black Use this password betrunghi@2018 to access keys, online resources and practice on Phrasal compounds 45 Phrasal nouns 46 Phrasal adjectives 47 Internal changes 52 List of -edly adverbs. WORD-PARTS -vis-, -vid- 10 blogchuyenanh. -mit-, -mis- 22 wordpress.com. -man-, -audi- 36 55 white, wheat grey colour Please do not -pen- 50 share the -port- 54 password out. ENTRY 1 A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 3 5 After a turbulent first few months, he finally feels comfortable in his new (round) Multiple were situated in strategic locations along the terraces, terraces, capturing the sun's light as it made its daily path. (sun) Literature and extra-curricular activities such as drama and singing are in their school curricula. (corpus) The piano of has brought him recognition as one of the major jazz innovators of this century. (art) Writers do not predict the future but use writing as a cognitive ancillary in the of the present. (mystery) 6 This state-of-the-art facility is so it is unbelievably superior to any facility in the world. (future) 7 Blogging had become a way of leading a kind of surrogate social life with people. (mind) 8 As violence of any kind is legalised, the society becomes resulting in an increase in violence and crime. (sense) Q Students and faculty have the opportunity to change in our society by presenting their views and research to the world. (effect)

10 It him that people cause so much mindless damage and say untruths about him. (fury) B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Possibly as early as the 12th century, traveling 1 singing ballads in praise of the (minister) began (ply) of a thief named Robin Hood. His skill in 3 (arch), his free and easy 4 Forest, and, perhaps most of all, his ability to 5 Nottingham 0 (life) in Sherwood (wit) the Sheriff of (dear) him to the common people. In ballad after ballad, Robin Hood was consistently from the rich and shared the 8 Although (line) as one who stole only (spoil) of his actions with the poor. (picture) as the enemy of the nobility, Robin Hood (flag) loyalty to his king, Richard the Lion-Hearted. possessed a(n) 10 This feeling was shared by many people at the time. As the stories of this (putative) champion of the people (scintillate) band of increased in number, so did the size of his 12 thieves. A huge hulk of a man called Little John became his most 13 (trust) follower. Alan-a-Dale, a singer, entertained the group around the (camp). The fat and Friar Tuck kept everyone amused. 1 evening 14 Entry In later ballads, Robin acquired his story included all the 16 17 meetings, Was Robin Hood a (feign) of some 19 (love), Maid Marian. This (time) romantic qualities - danger, secret (guise), and the triumph of true love. living, breathing human being or merely the 18 (ballad) imagination? Those who claim him to (scene). The laws be real offer an interesting and believable 20 protecting the king's forests and deer were quite strict in 12th century England. Perhaps a hunter by 21 (happen) killed one of the king's deer. As a wanted man, he may have gone into hiding in the deepest part of the forest. There he might have been joined by 22 (path) supporters. Apart from the ballads, however, firm evidence of Robin Hood's existence is hard to find. No 23 (school) or historian of the time mentions him. The events described in the various stories simply could not have happened in the course of one (24) Prince of Thieves 25 (time). Even so, the romantic picture of the (duration) in modern poems, operas, and movies. Robin Hood clearly lives on in legend. C Put the words given in the correct blanks, using their correct forms to make a meaningful passage. bear cover danger design fear ground know like plenty slow spectacle vary The Everglades National Park is located on the southern tip of Florida, in the USA, covering a vast wetland quite has been a World Heritage Site. any other in the world. It water that The Everglades is basically a huge area of shallow, R comprises an enormous area of over 6,000 km2. Visitors can therefore easily the Everglades by boat, kayak, or canoe, but it is easy to lose their in shallow water, so great care 5 or the boat may run 6 needs to be taken. There is a huge range of plants, including the famous mangrove trees growing out of the water and many The area boasts many rare and of rare orchid. species, such as the American crocodile, Florida panther, and West Indian manatee. The Everglades are 9 for alligators, which, despite their 10 normally wary of people. It is also possible to see 11 birds feeding in the shallows and on mud flats. appearance, are flocks of water The Everglades used to cover an area twice the size of the present national park, but in the course of the 20th century much of the original land was 12 and given over to agriculture. 2 Word Formation Resource 1 OALD PRESCRIPTION 1 ROUND (all-)around, all-round(er), (a)round-the-clock, go-(a)round, merry-go-round, (mini-)roundabout, rounded, roundel, rounders, roundhouse, round-eyed, rounding, roundly, roundness, round-shouldered, roundsman, round-table, round-trip, round-up, roundworm, runaround, surround(ing(s)), theatre-in-the-round, turn(a)round, unrounded, well-rounded, whip-round, workaround, wrap(-)around(s), year-round; (o)rotund(ity); rota(ry), rotating, rotation(al), rotor, rotund(a), roulette; prune, pruning; rodeo SUN (extra)solar, insolation, parasol, solarium, solstice; aftersun, sun-baked, sunbathe, sunbeam, sunbed, sunblock, sunburn(ed), sunburnt, sunburst, suncream, sundae, sundial, sundown(er), sun-drenched, sundress, sun-dried, sunflower, sunglasses, sun-kissed, sunlamp, sunless, sunlight, sunlit, sunlounger, sunnies, sunny, sunray, sunrise, sunroof, sunroom, sunscreen, sunset, sunshade, sunshine, sunspot, sunstroke, suntan(ned), suntrap, sunup, sun-worshipper 3 3 CORPORATE corpora(1), (in)corporation, corporatism, corporator, (extra)corporeal, corps(e), corpulence, corpulent, corpus(cle), incorporate(d), incorporeal; corsage, corselet(te), corset 4 ART artefact, artifact, artful, art-house, artifice, artificial(ity), artisan(al), artist, artistic(ally), artistry, artless, artsy(-fartsy), artwork, arty(-farty); inert(ia), inertial O MYSTIFY (de)mystification, (de)mystify, mysterious(ly), mysteriousness, mystery, mystic(al(ly)), mysticism, mystifying,

mystique; myopia, myopic(ally); (ad)minister, (mal)administration, administrative(ly), administrator, ministerial, ministering, ministrations, ministry; diminish, diminuendo, diminution, diminutive, undiminished; (last-)minute, lastminute.com, minuet, minus(cule), minutely, minutiae, plus-minus, two-minute, up-to-the-minute; menu; mince(r), mincemeat, mincing; minor(ity), minor-league FUTURE future-proof, futurism, futurist(ic), futurity, futurologist, futurology; absence, absent(ee(ism)), absentia, absently, absent-minded(ly), absent-mindedness; Resource (non)entity; (quint)essence, (quint)essential(ly), inessential, non-essential; disinterested (ed), disinterestedly, interest(ed), interest-free, interesting(ly), self-interest(ed), uninterested, uninteresting; (mis)represent(ation), (omni) presence, omnipresent, presentable, presentation(al), present-day, presenteeism, presenter, presently, re-present, representational, (un)representative, telepresence, under-represented MIND demented(ly), dementia, mental(ity), mentally; absent-minded(ly), absent-mindedness, bloody-minded(ness), broad-minded(ness), childminder, fair-minded, feeble-minded, high-minded(ness), like-minded, mastermind, mind-bending, mind-blowing, mind-boggling, minded, minder, (un)mindful, mindless(ly), mind-numbing(ly), mind-reader, mindset, mindshare, narrow-minded(ness), open-minded(ness), right-minded, simple-minded, single-minded(ly), single-mindedness, 4 Q small-minded(ness), strong-minded, tough-minded; above-mentioned, aforementioned, undermentioned, unmentionable; remind(er), reminiscence), reminiscent, misremember, remembrance; aide-memoire, commemorate, commemoration, commemorative, (im)memorial, (un)memorable, memento, memo(ir), memor(ial)ise, memorabilia, memorandum, memoriam, memory SENSE case-sensitive, (de)sensitisation, (de)sensitise, extrasensory, hypersensitive, hypersensitivity, (in)sensibility, (in)sensible, (in)sensibly, (in)sensitive(ly), (in)sensitivity, (no-)nonsense, nonsensical, oversensitive, photosensitive, sensation(al(ly)), sensationalise, sensationalism, sensationalist, senseless(ly), sensor(y), sensual(ity), sensually, sensuous(ly), sensuousness; sentient, (pre)sentiment, sentimental(ly), sentimentalise, sentimentalist, sentimentality, unsentimental; sententious(ly) EFFECT after-effect, (co)efficient, cost-effective(ness), (in)effective(ly), (in) effective(ness), effectivity, effector, (in)effectual(ly), Resource effectuate, efficacious, efficacy, (in)efficiency, (in)efficient(ly), side-effect; feckless(ness); defect(ion), defective(ly), defectiveness, defector, (immuno) deficiency, deficient, deficit; affect(ation), affecting, affected(ly), affection(ate(ly)), affective(ly), disaffected, disaffection, unaffected, aficionado; artefact, artifact, artifice, artificial(ity); benefaction, benefactive, benefactor, benefice(nce), beneficent, beneficial(ly), beneficiary, (cost-)benefit; chafe, chaff(inch), chafing, chauffeur, cockchafer; (dis)comfit, discomfiture; confection(er), confectionary; confetti; copier, copious(ly), copybook, copycat, copy-edit, copyist, copyright, copywriter, cornucopia, photocopier, photocopy; counterfeit (er), counterfeiting, forfeit(ure), surfeit; defeat(ism), defeatist, self-defeating, undefeated; ado, can-do, derring-do, doable, (evil-)doer, do-gooder, do-it-yourself, don't-know, do-or-die, hairdo, ne'er-do-well, outdo, overdo, redo, to-do, underdone, (un)do(ing), undone, updo, well-done, well-to-do, wrongdoer, wrongdoing; edification, edifice, (un)edify(ing); facile, facilitate, facilitation, facility, faculty; facsimile, fax; contrafactive, counterfactual, fact-finding, malefactor, manufacture(r), manufacturing, matter-of-fact(ly), non-factive; putrefaction, putrefy, putrid; (un)fashionable, (un)fashionably, fashion-conscious, fashion-forward, fashionista, old-fashioned, parrot-fashion; (un)feasible, feasibility; affair(e), laissez-faire; (par)fait; feat(ure), feature-length, featureless; fetish(ise), fetishism, fetishist(ic); hacienda; (un)identifiable, identification, identifier, identify, unidentified; (im)perfect(ion), (im)perfectly, letter-perfect, perfectionism, perfectionist, picture-perfect, pluperfect, word-perfect; (cross-)infection, disinfect(ant), disinfection, infect(ed), infectious(ly), infectiousness, infective; (in)sufficiency, (in)sufficient(ly), self-sufficient, self-sufficiency, suffice; deliquescence), liquefy, liqueur, liquid (ate), liquidation, liquidator, liquidise(r), liquor; (DA-)notice, noticeable, noticeably, noticeboard, notifiable, notification, notify, notion(al(ly)), unnoticed; notoriety, notorious(ly); office-bearer, office-holder, officer, (un)official(ly), officialdom, officialese, officiate, officio(us(ly)), officiousness; orifice; (co)operate, ((non-)co)operation, (co)operative(ly), (in(ter))operable, inoperative, operand(i), opera(tic), faction(al(ism)), factitious, fact(it)ive, operating, operation(al(ly)), operator, facto(id), factor(ial), factorise, (ol)factory, factotum, factual(ly), 5 LO operetta, opus, post-operative, teleoperate, uncooperative; pontiff, • • 10 pontifical, pontificate, pontoon; prefect(ure); proficiency, proficient; (non-)profit(-making), not-for-profit, profitability, (un)profitable, (un)profitably, profiteer(ing), profiterole, profitless, profit-sharing, profit-taking, with-profit(s); refectory; (dis)satisfaction, (dis)satisfied, (un)satisfactorily, (un)satisfactory, satisfying(ly), self-satisfaction, self-satisfied, unsatisfied, unsatisfying; (in)satiable, insatiably, satiate, satiation, satiety; asset(-stripping); sadden, saddo, sadly, sadness; stupefaction, stupefy(ing(ly)), stupendous (ly), stupid(ily), stupidly, stupor FURY furious(ly), furor(e), infuriate, infuriating(ly) some prefixes are more common with verb forms (or nouns formed from verbs), e.g. disappear(ance); distrust (v, n); misinform; mispronounce sometimes words which take the prefix un- tend to be of Germanic origin, e.g. unflattering, unsuitable, whereas words of Latin origin tend to take the prefix in- (also il-, ir- and im- which are variations of in-), e.g. invalid, insincere, etc.; however, these are only tendencies, and you will find plenty of examples that break the rule AFFIXES STUDY NOTES As you do word formation exercises, you should bear in mind the following features of affixation: • ⚫ some affixes are more highly productive than others • · • · ⚫ some internal changes may be required; sometimes this change may involve part of the word, e.g. explain to inexplicable it is not uncommon for there to be two or more derived words of different parts of speech sometimes the meaning is the same across the derivatives within a word family, but there may be a shift in meaning, e.g. term, which is different from the most common sense of extermination and predetermined although there are few rules of affixation, there are some fairly predictable patterns: - adjectives ending in -ful often form opposites with -less ― - adjectives ending in -able often form opposites with un- or in- (un- is much more likely) adjectives ending in -ate (and also -ible) may have opposites with in- verbs ending in -ify often form nouns with -ation - we use il-, ir- and im- before certain adjectives beginning with I-, r-, and p- or m-, respectively unlike suffixes which usually denote the grammatical forms of words, prefixes generally carry meaning 6 PRACTICE 1 Form A A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 4 By improving military training programs, sailors will be more professionally and personally. (round) Based on planet discoveries in our own stellar neighbourhood, astronomers predict new planets will be discovered. (sun) Legal recognition of trade marks as a species of first accorded in the first half of the 19th century. (corpus) Unfortunately, post-modern politics is remarkably of the challenge of constructing a new kind of state. (art) 5 Originally they were portrayed as boring, 6 property was in the face bean counters completely lacking in foresight or creativity. (mystic) This bill is designed to be in terms of the changes in veterinary training that are expected in coming years. (future) 7 As if C he jumbled everything up, used wrong words or left gaps in sentences that trail off to nowhere. (mind) The of certain characters to language in this play betrays their desire to mark social status linguistically. (sense) The researchers will examine the efficacy and based health improvements. (effect) of community- 10 The public over the future of the road continued as residents voiced their views at a public meeting. (fury) 11 There were no findings of or wrongdoing in the management of the Regional Partnerships Program. (minister) in 12 Projects may include research to find out which groups are the workforce by helping employers audit their staff. (presence) 13 The trust gets together every year to organise ceremonies and to give away an award in the name of the actor. (memo) 14 Warned by a(n) of catastrophe, they turned back at the last minute from boarding a plane that was shortly to crash. (sentient) diseases caused by genetic polymorphisms are now 15 Primary largely diagnosable with molecular probes. (defect) 16 Eddie has been instrumental in working with young people in the area, inspiring pride in the local community. (affect) 17 The food giant certainly seems friendly, offering consumers a(n) of food choices at low prices. (copy) 18 Paying children too much attention when they misbehave can be (feat) 19 If only we could use our understanding of criminal mechanisms to prevent cybercrime, not just penalise 20 They are on a(n) after the fact. (do) mission to gather all data, surveys and specialist reports to oppose the no smoking ban in Ireland. (fact) 7 PRACTICE 1 Form A B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. (dome) on the Until the early 1800s, most Americans was East Coast. As the population of eastern cities swelled, many Americans began moving westward to settle the 2 apparently (front). The West became (resist) when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California in January of 1848. Prodded by a craving for wealth and riches, thousands of Americans settled in this (auspices) territory. Californians needed a way to 6 and 7 needed a fast, & In addition to attracting miners and fortune hunters, the gold rush also lured merchants, 5 (craft), and farmers to the West. These new (response) with family, friends, (social) who remained in the East. In other words, they (depend) method of mail delivery between the East and the West. At the time, mail was sent across the country by stagecoach. These coaches lumbered slowly over rough trails and were at the mercy of the weather and bandits. The 9 stagecoach led to the Pony Express, an experiment in rapid mail delivery between Missouri and California. Hoping to win a(n) government contract for (come) of the (munition) (country) mail delivery, the freighting and express firm of Russell, Majors, and Waddell 12 (take) to carry letters almost 2,000 miles in less than 10 days. William Hepburn Russell planned a relay system of riders on 13 (horse). To provide fresh horses for the riders, the company established more than 100 stations 14 (proximity) 15 miles apart along a route through Nebraska, Wyoming, and Nevada. Each rider rode about 75 miles of the total route. The Pony Express eventually 15 100 hundred riders and more than 400 horses. The service was 16 was 17 (necessary) nearly (augur) on April 3, 1860. The riders made the journey all year, even during the difficult winter months. Even though the trip (hazard), only one mail delivery was ever lost. By late 1861, Russell, Majors, and Waddell had suffered serious money problems. The speed and ease of the telegraph presented (throat) competition to the Pony Express. When 19 connections were completed in October of 1861, Pony Express service was (continue). This celebrated effort to deliver the mail lasted less 20 than 18 months. (land) telegraph 8 PRACTICE 1 FORM B A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 4 6 7 by using Debtors will be much more able to give creditors the illness or loss of employment to have the terms changed. (round) Heathen festivals do not follow the 'Eight Fold Wheel of the Year' based on and equinoxes. (sun) He is now in his 73rd year and, to judge from the current show of his new work, his creative capacity remains (diminish) Six months in jail would certainly remind those handling the our lives that what's private should stay that way. (minute) Prices may rise and consumption may fall as individuals refrain from purchasing new cars, computers and other (essence) Even as Manuel reprimanded them during his speech, many sat there napped or kept busy with other things. (interest) applications, With a built-in camera, the ER2 can be used for allowing users to remotely attend events and meetings. (present) R This play was uncomfortably of having somebody sit down next to you in the metro and tell you their life story. (remind) Turns out he slightly the dream, but the point stands nonetheless... the example is just instrumental. (remembrance) 10 More often than not, Inuit used plants as tea, and various tea recipes have existed across the Arctic since time 11 When exposed to ultraviolet light, a(n) (memo) chemical in the liquid causes the material to harden and encapsulate the cells. (sense) of 12 A long-time supporter of devolution while an economic moderniser, he analysis of heavy industry's demise. (sentient) provides 13 If only we could give them a glimpse of this beautiful world with all its diversity, and promise! (perfect) The newspaper said the water was dull in appearance and had no trace such as chlorine. (infect) 14 of 15 16 Individuals must take advantage of all other means of view social assistance as an absolute last resort. (suffice) The organisers and the and have strained every nerve possible to make the tournament a resounding success. (office) 17 After their defeat at the Battle of Long Island, the mill was disabled so that the British would find it 18 (operate) At the gathering, Obama praised a New Hampshire poor people buy fuel-efficient, reliable cars. (profit) 19 They go home feeling accomplished, smug and intentions were noble and worthy. (satisfy) that helps because their thirst for 20 Who among us can possibly keep up with the novelty demanded and dominated by the toy industry? (satiety) 9 B PRACTICE 1 FORM B Use the word-parts-vis- or -vid- (from videre 'to see') to form a word that completes each sentence. A licence was finally approved but with the ______ vis _ that music would only be played in the bar area. Additional teachers are needed to take up the hours of direct teaching time lost due to the need to perform vis → After completing his school education, he studied communications and filmmaking for three years. duties. -vis 1 During our on-site inspection, they wandered about with too much 5 vis ___ free access in the detainee area. Even the

best regulated national fisheries are not immune to vid ___ policies motivated by social and political concerns. 6 For those travelling far and wide in Southeast Asia in search of birds, ____vis ___ King guide was the only one available until now. 7 9 10 the If people think that civil servants or ministers put their minds to this vis _______ then they couldn't be more wrong. _-_vid It is vid ______ that if the same team work together on a regular basis there is the opportunity for learning from what has gone before. It is the duty of government to make vis for the future and to keep its citizens equipped to compete in a globalised market. It would be _______ vis ________ for an employer to conclude that because they had not witnessed harassment, that means it did not take place. 11 Not able to work, he struggles to ____ vis ______ a future for himself and how his misfortune might end. 1.3 She is playing to a loyal audience here, but shows a good deal of humour and ______ vis ______ in her performance. 13 She seems to have become accustomed to seeing herself through the eyes of vis media and the products it promotes. 14 Subjects are asked to copy the figure to assess their vis constructional ability, and then reproduce the figure from memory. 15 The combined package makes for better 17 than most competing caps in the market. -_ vid ______ qualities - — The novice manager accepts he finds himself in a(n) ____ vid ___ position following in the footsteps of his ex-boss. The software allows users to take a phone conversation and turn it into a(n) vid with multiple participants. 19 The work that needs to be done is performed by desperate but 19 vis workers living on the insecure economic edge. The _____ vis__. __festival programme has thrown up some intriguing possibilities for a couple of good nights on the town. 20 This option entails wearing a bifocal or multifocal contact lens in one eye and a(n) __ _-vis _ __ __ lens in the other eye. 10 ENTRY 2 A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 5 O 7 8 Despite his poor village origins, he is cold and confronting his family and friends. (differ) He resisted all the to the problems embraced by most modern travellers and hours at explorers to carry elaborate equipment and learn the language. (tempt) Many young journalists, or student journalists, work rates of pay that have not increased for at least four years. (society) Except for the cost of printing the money, the central bank incurs no other cost in producing it. (neglect) The Museum is looking to host exhibitions that celebrate major technological and the people behind them. (break) We are part of the rich diversity of British life, and we strive with people of other faiths for the of our society. (good) Second-hand smoke is even more dangerous than directly inhaled smoke and kills more than 3,000 Canadians a year. (smoke) Such interim measures may be taken in order to prevent serious and harm to any person, or damage to the public interest. (repair) investment, Bubble excesses, including over-consumption and have engendered an increasingly untenable trade position. (adjust) 10 Before deciding how to meet this threat, check the soundness of your grapevine to make sure you're not to rumours. (act) B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Although 1 (simile) to other types of stories, fables are a special type of narrative. In traditional fables, such as those 2 (suppose) told by Aesop in ancient Greece, the 3 (parson) are animals. The story itself is meant to teach a lesson, such as the value of some 4 (ethic) rule or human virtue. Aesop is mentioned by a number of ancient Greek authors, but it is difficult to 5 (differ) fact from fiction. Most people agree that he was born a slave in the first half of the 6th century B.C. Beyond this fact, however, stories of Aesop's life are probably more 6 (legend) than 7 (factual). As was the custom then, even those born into (serve) were allowed to participate in public life, so though no free man, Aesop may have been (title) to travelling far and wide sharing his fables. According to one somewhat (quest) story, Aesop took up (reside) in Sardis. There he became 12 (cognition) with King Croesus. Croesus 13 (eulogy) Aesop and hired him to serve as a(n) 14 (good) to the people. This allowed 11 (embassy) of 15 11 ENTRY Aesop to spread the 16 own sense of (17) (rude) of his fables. Unfortunately, Aesop's (integral) led to his death. Croesus sent Aesop to Delphi with gold to of that 19 (pub). When Aesop arrived, he became 20 at the Delphinians' 21 Croesus. The angry Delphinians 22 (tribe) to the citizens (rage) (avaricious), so he sent the money back to (prison) Aesop and immediately executed him. The people of Delphi were punished for their 23 (petition) behaviour with a series of 24 they offered a public apology. Whether Aesop wrote the fables 25 stories have been 26 (strophe) that continued till (script) to him or not, the (tell) and enjoyed for centuries. One such tale is "The Ant and the Dove": A very thirsty ant went down to the river for a drink. There the rushing waters carried the ant away. He was about to drown when a dove, watching from a tree branch 2/ (hang) the river, 28 dropped a leaf into the water near the ant. The ant climbed aboard this (make) raft and drifted to the shore and safety. A little while later, a birdcatcher came along and began arranging twigs as a trap for the dove. The ant, realising his 29 birdcatcher's painful scream (manner), bit him in the foot. The (warn) the dove, who flew away. Put the words given in the correct blanks, using their correct forms to make a meaningful passage. come common distinct gene head lucre pair place side tangent A successful family business is talents. However, families also bring their on the family's strengths and and personal problems to the 3 Being part of a family is very difficult. Being part of a family business is even more difficult. Love is important in a family, but love is not enough to run a family business. The Bancroft family is an interesting example. For 105 years, the Bancroft family owned 'The Wall Street Journal'. It is one of the most 4 newspapers in the US. But there were many family problems. They did not well, and they were at 6 with over many things. It was 5 said that they couldn't even agree on where to go lunch. The younger family members wanted the business to be more The elders thought the quality of the paper was more important than making money. In addition, the family let people of the family manage the newspaper. Finally, in 2007, all 33 of the Bancroft family owners agreed to sell the company. Though the business had lasted several 9 the Bancroft eventually had to sell their company because they did not manage it well. In the end, many of their family relationships was 12 Word Formation Resource 2 OALD PRESCRIPTION 11 DIFFER (in) difference, (in) different(ly), differential, differentiate, differentiation, undifferentiated; ablation, ablative; (air)borne, (un)bearable, (office)-bearer, bearing, bearish, bearskin, born-again, bugbear, childbearing, firstborn, forbear(ance), forbearing, forborne, forebear, freeborn, French-born, high-born, inborn, low-born, mosquito-borne, natural-born, newborn, nobly-born, oil-bearing, overbearing, pall-bearer, reborn, rocket-borne, seaborne, standard-bearer, stillborn, stretcher-bearer, unbearably, unborn, waterborne, well-born; circumference; collate(ral), collation; (bi) lateral(ly), equilateral, multilateral(ism), quadrilateral, trilateral, unilateral(ism), unilateralist, unilaterally; confer(ence), (tele)conferencing, conferment, teleconference, videoconferencing; (cor)relate, (cor)relation, (cor)relative, drug-related, earnings-related, interrelate(d), (inter)relationship, (performance-)related, pollution-related, prelate, relatedness, relational, related-party, relatively, relativism, relativist, relativity, smoking-related, stress-related, tobacco-related, unrelated, work-related; dilate; insufferable, insufferably, (long-)suffering, sufferance, sufferer; transferability, transferable, transference, transferral; translate, translation, translator; aquifer; conifer(ous); (co)referential, cross-refer(ence), (de)reference, referable, referee, referendum, referral, self-referential; preferable, preferably, preference, preferential(ly), preferment; deference, deferens, deferential(ly), deferral, tax-deferred; (cross-)fertilisation, (cross-)fertilise, fertility, fertiliser, infertile, infertility; inference, inferior(ity), infernal(ly), inferno; (non-)interference, interfering, interferon; offering, offertory, proffer 12 TEMPT attempt(ed), temptation, tempter, tempting(ly), temptress; tentacle, tentative(ly), tentativeness 13 SOCIAL (anti)social, associate(d), association(ism), associative, dis(as)sociate, dissociation, sociability, (un)sociable, sociably, socialisation, socialise(d), socialism, socialist(ic), socialite, socially, societal, society, sociocultural, socio-economic, sociolect, sociolinguistic(s), sociological(ly), sociologist, sociology, sociopath, sociopolitical, unsocial 13 14 Resource NEGLECT neglected, neglectful, idiolect, sociolect; eclectic(ally), negligee, negligence, negligent(ly), negligible; (re)coil, uncoil; collect(able(s)), collected, collection, collective(ly), collectivisation, collectivise, collectivism, collectivist, collector(ate), recollect(ion); cull; (by-)election, electioneering, elective, elector(al(ly)), electorate, president-elect, re-elect(ion), unelected; elegance, (in)elegant(ly); (in)eligibility, (in)eligible; elite, elitism, elitist; (counter-)intelligence, intel(lect(ual(ly))), intellectualism, intelligent(ly), intelligentsia, intelligibility, unintelligent, (un)intelligible, (un)intelligibly; allegiance, legion(ary), legionnaire(s); (col)league, beleaguered, big-league, bush-league, major-league, minor-league; legume, leguminous; (de)select(ion), preselect, selectee, selectional, selective(ly), selectivity, selector, self-selected, self-selecting, self-selection; alexia, dyslexia, dyslexic, lexeme, lexical(ly), lexicographer, lexicography, lexicology, lexicon, lexis; acrolect, basilect, dialect(al), dialectic(al), dialectics, dialectologist, dialectology, eclecticism; lectern, lector, lectrice, lecture(r), lectureship; predilection; anthologise, anthology; analog(ue), catalog(ue), dialog(ue), epilogue, ideologue, monolog(ue), prologue, travelog(ue); legomenon; legend(ary); legibility, (il)legible, (il)legibly; lesson; sacrilege, sacrilegious 15 BREAK back-breaking, ball-breaker, ball-breaking, biobreak, (un)breakable, breakage, breakaway, breakbeat, breakbone, break-dance(r), break-dancing, breakdown, break-even, breakfast, break-in, breaking, breakneck, breakout, breakthrough, break-up, breakwater, (circuit-)breaker, broke(n), broken-down, broken-hearted, brokenly, daybreak, deal-breaker, firebreak, groundbreaking, heartbreak(ing), heartbroken, housebreaker, housebreaking, house-broken, icebreaker, jailbreak(er), lawbreaker, lawbreaking, outbreak, record-breaker, record-breaking, strike-breaker, strike-breaking, tiebreak(er), unbroken, windbreak(er); chamfer(ing), defrag, (de)fragment, diffract(ion), fractal, fraction(al(ly)), factious, fracture(d), fragile, fragility, fragmentary, fragmentation, fragmented, frail(ty), infraction, 14 16 RESOURCE osprey, refract(ion), refractive, refractometer, refractor(y), refrain, sassafras, saxifrage; fringe(d), infringe(ment); cant(abile), cantata, canticle, canto(n(ment)), cantor, decant(er), descant, incantation, recant(ation); accent(ed), accentuate, accentuation, unaccented; (dis)incentive, (dis)incentivise; chant(er), chanterelle, chanteuse, chant(e)y, (en)chanting, chantry, (dis)enchanted, (dis)enchantment, enchantingly, enchantress, plainchant; choir(boy), choirmaster; choral(e), chorea, choreograph(er), choreographic, choreography, choric, chorister, chorus; charm(ed), charmer, charming(ly), charmless GOOD do-gooder, feel-good, goodbye, good-for-nothing, good-hearted, good-humo(u)red(ly),

goodie, goodish, good-looking, goodly, good-natured(ly), good-neighbourliness, goodness, goodnight, goodo, goods, good-tempered, good-time, goodwill, goody(-goody), goody-two-shoes, honest-to-goodness, no-good; for(e)gather, gather(er), gathering, gathers, 15 hunter-gatherer, newsgatherer, newsgathering; (al)together, get-together, togetherness; better(ment), better-known, (better-off); best-before, best-known, bestseller, bestselling; borewell, farewell, inkwell, ne'er-do-well, speedwell, stairwell, (un)welcome, (un)welcoming, unwell, welfare, welkin, well-adjusted, well-advised, well-appointed, well-attended, well-balanced, well-behaved, well-being, well-born, well-bred, well-built, well-connected, well-cut, well-defined, well-developed, well-disposed, well-documented, well-done, well-dressed, well-dressing, well-earned, well-endowed, well-established, well-fed, well-formed, well-founded, well-groomed, well-grounded, well-heeled, well-hung, well-informed, well-intentioned, well-kept, well-known, well-mannered, well-matched, well-meaning, well-meant, wellness, well-nigh, well-off, well-oiled, well-paid, (well-placed), well-preserved, well-read, well-rounded, well-run, well-spoken, wellspring, well-thought-of, well-thought-out, well-thumbed, well-timed, well-to-do, well-travelled, well-tried, well-trodden, well-turned(-out), well-used, well-wisher, well-worn; (common)wealth, wealthy; benevolence, benevolent(ly), malevolence, malevolent(ly); 1/ 18 RESOURCE goodwill, pigswill, self-willed, strong-willed, (un)willing(ly), (un)willingness), whippoorwill, will-call, willful, will-o'-the-wisp, willpower SMOKE (chain-)smoke(r), non-smoker, (no(n))-smoking, smog(gy), smoked, smoke-filled, smoke-free, smokeless, smokescreen, smokestack, smoko, smoky REPAIR disrepair, irreparable, irreparably, repairable, repairer, repairman, repairs, reparation; ill-prepared, preparation, preparatory, prepare(d(ness)), underprepared, unprepared; apparat(chik), apparatus; (in)comparability, (in)comparable, comparative(ly), comparison, incomparably; disparage(ment), disparaging(ly), disparate, disparity; emperor, empire- building, empirical(ly), empiricism, empiricist, empress; imperative, imperial(ism), imperialist(ic), imperious(ly); (in)separability, (in)separable, inseparably, separate(d/s/ly), separateness, separation, separatism, separatist, separator; sever(al(ly)), severance; rampart; vituperation, vituperative; (cheese-)paring, parade, pare(d), parings, parry; apparel, apparent(ly), apparition, appearance, disappear(ance), non-appearance, reappear(ance), transparency, transparent(ly); godparent, grandparent, lone-parent, one-parent, parentage, parental, parenthood, parenting, parentis, parents-in-law, parent-teacher, parturition, step-parent; nonpareil, oviparous, parity, parlay, subpar, (ovo)viviparous, viper; impair(ed), impairment, pairing, unimpaired; peer(age), peeress, peerless, peer-reviewed; peer-to-peer 19 ADJUST adjustable, adjuster, (mal)adjustment, maladjusted, readjust(ment), unadjusted, well-adjusted; juxtapose, juxtaposition; joust 20 ACT acting, (prot)actinium, action(er), actionable, action-packed, (de/in/re)activate, (re)activation, active(ly), activism, activist, (in/inter/re) activity, actor(-manager), actress, actual(ly), actualise, actuality, actuarial, actuary, actuate, all-action, bolt-action, counteract, double-action, (re-)enact(ment), entr'acte, (in)exact, exact(ing), exaction, exactly, exactness, (in)exactitude, hyperactive, hyperactivity, inaction, inactive, interact(ion), interactive(ly), live-action, overact(ive), 16 • • COMPOUND NOUNS overreact(ion), play-act(ing), proactive(ly), psychoactive, pump-action, radioactive, radioactivity, react(ance), reactant, reaction(ary), reactive, reactor, retroactive(ly), self-actualisation, surfactant, transact(ion(al)); agency, agenda, agent, newsagent, reagent; agile, agility; agitate(d), agitation, agitato (r), agitprop; ambiguity, (un)ambiguous(ly), disambiguate; cogency, cogent(ly), cogitate, cogitation; (circum)navigate, (circum)navigation, navigability, navigable, navigational, navigator Common AFFIXES STUDY NOTES Visit blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com to download a list of common affixes from the Oxford Learner's Dictionary of Academic English. COMPOUND Nouns STUDY NOTES . Common countable one-word compound nouns: break-in, breakout, cutback, database, painkiller, (penalty) shoot-out, throwback, washing-up, skateboard, etc. Common uncountable compound nouns: cardboard, feedback, ill-treatment, keyhole (surgery), make-up, metalwork, ovenware, peacetime, rainwater, software, stomachache, sunshine, ketchup, washing-up liquid, etc. Some one-word compound nouns only have a plural form: roadworks, sunglasses, bagpipes, bedclothes, nutcrackers, outskirts, underpants, waterworks, etc. Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. The tax credit is available only for children who are cared for by a registered (mind) This one is surprisingly spacious and currently houses a(n) and a shelving unit. (fridge) Compared to astrophotographs, images of computer simulations seem like shabby 4 He is a(n) . (make) who is always avoiding taking risks. (safe) The event broke the world's record for having the largest gathering of Harry Potter (like) The institution, which attracts students from affluent families, has been in fashion. (set) You don't have to be a(n) to read philosophy; you can even read it before sleeping. (head) They were hoaxes written by or mentally unstable members of the public. (chief) › A copyboy is a now extinct species who did what journos couldn't be bothered doing. (body) They have spent years scrabbling around with trying to find of top talent. (head) 11 The walls of the project rooms are plastered with diagrams, and other ephemera. (flow) 12 His book is a(n) that teaches, using words and images that stick in the mind. (turn) A teenager was left heartbroken after at her 18th birthday party stole all her gifts. (crash) 17 Compounds WITH WELL- & ILL- Well- and ill- are often used in combination with past participles to form adjectival compounds. As far as hyphenation is concerned, the general stylistic principle is that if the adjectival compound is placed attributively, it should be hyphenated (a well-intentioned remark) but that if placed predicatively, it should be unhyphenated (her remarks were well intentioned). Complete the following collocations with well- and ill-compounds. ill- at one's hands attempt/venture clothes/window gain Group the following words into lexical chains. Some words do not belong to any group. ADVANCED PRESCRIPTION ill-adjusted, ill-advised(ly), ill-affected, ill-assorted, ill-behaved, ill-bred, ill-chosen, ill-concealed, ill-conceived, ill-considered, ill-defined, ill-deserved, ill-disciplined, ill-disposed, ill-dressed, ill-educated, ill-equipped, ill-famed, ill-fated, ill-favoured, ill-fitting, ill-founded, ill-gotten, ill-humoured, ill-informed, ill-judged, ill-lit, ill-looking, ill-made, ill-mannered, ill-matched, ill-natured, ill-omened, ill-organised, ill-prepared, ill-proportioned, ill-shaped, ill-smelling, ill-starred, ill-suited, ill-tempered, ill-thought-out, ill-timed, ill-treat(ed/ment), ill-use(d) 34 ill- 35 ill emotional/financial well- 36 ill 37 ill - well- argument 3 well- article well- conference 5 well- copy/book 6 well- diet 7 well- education 8 well- facts 9 well- fear/suspicion 10 well- goal/try 11 well- hand 12 well- impossible 13 well- job 14 well- lawn 15 well- manure 16 well- militia 17 well- parent/family 18 well- path 19 well- penalty 20 well- phrase 21 well- recognition/victory 22 well- reputation/rest 23 well- route 24 well- secret 25 well- shop/library/larder 38 26 well- soil 39 27 well- street 40 za well- suit 41 29 well- tradition/method 42 30 well- type/rule 43 31 well- vulnerability 44 32 well- word/selection 45 33 well- workforce 18 PRACTICE 2 Form A A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 No scientific work can ever address the question of how intelligence arose in a universe of matter. (differ) Travel widens horizons and makes people wiser and more mature, besides developing the qualities of Catholic leaders have not (bear) themselves from the ambivalent statement emanating from last week's funeral. (social) To the best of my the 'average' lifespan for marriages in the UK is anywhere between five to seven years. (collect) Building self-respect and self-esteem in campers can commence with good such as introductory name games. (break) The fact that conservative books dominate the bogus such measures are as evidence of bias. (good) list shows how 7 We went during Paris fashion week and the place was full of martini drinking skinny models, and sipping Martinis. (smoke) C The difficulty is that when production systems are allowed to fall into they cannot quickly be brought back into use. (repair) The project involves a display of panels graphic images of human abuse with pictures of chained animals. (adjust) 10 To get to the bottom of the issue, we should note that economics is little more than the study of human communications or (act) Principals can remove students involved in weapons or drug offenses and those at risk of harming themselves or others. (lateral) 11 12 This isn't a plea for sympathy; along with their self-doubt, journalists are given to 13 vanity and sanctimony. (suffer) The very nature of knowledge is different in the digital age because information held on computers can be and linked. (refer) 14 The Security Service Bureau was established in 1909 to tackle 15 and threats to security in British territory. (intel) Lawyers presented the accusation before the members of the tribunal, detailing the circumstances of the (fringe) 16 Greater spending will simply raise the interest rate, private investment and increase the burden of indebted families. (incentive) 17 This would allow journalists to compete on the basis of quality 18 as opposed to sensationalism. (gather) Females are often socialised to be dependent and obedient, while males independent and 19 The increase in 20 (will) students, coupled with administrative pressure to lower standards, has a demoralising effect on faculty. (prepare) Native speakers of all written languages use context to homophone pairs that have a single written form. (ambiguous) 19 PRACTICE 2 Form A B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 3 On its (planet) journey through space, a meteor may pass close enough to Earth to be drawn to its surface by gravity. As it (lesion) with Earth's atmosphere, the meteor becomes so hot that it begins to (vapour) or melt away and fall to the surface. As it falls through the 4 emanates from it. Most meteors burn to a fine (dense) atmosphere, a stream of 5 after they 7 (candle) particles (air) dust soon (contra) Earth's atmosphere. However, parts of larger meteors, called meteorites, may hit the surface. The largest known meteorite weighs about 60 tons. The impact of these meteorites leaves large circular (press) in the Earth's crust. More than 120 such impact sites from meteorites and other @ (terrace) bodies are known to exist on Earth. Of these, the Barringer meteor crater in northern Arizona was the first to be (10) (point). This 600- foot deep, bowl-shaped hollow is 11 (round) by a 160-foot high rim. Meteors can be seen on almost any clear night, but during certain times of the year they are 12 (specious) in large numbers. These 13 11 (ply) are called meteor showers. Meteor showers have been (docile) for more than 900 years. Until the present century, they were the cause of considerable 15 (prehensile). Many ancient people felt these 16 (device) a probable (explain) light shows heralded some approaching disaster. Modern science,

however, has 17 explanation. Most meteor showers are believed to be produced by comets that leave 19 as they orbit the sun. The 20 when Earth's 21 (deter) (train) of particles behind them (set) of a meteor shower is triggered (jet) passes near the course of this stream of debris. (use) high speeds, The small particles enter Earth's atmosphere at 22 creating a(n) 23 (vibe), visible display. The largest recorded meteorite shower occurred over North America on November 12, 1833. Today scientists can 24 shower. On a clear night a(n) without the aid of a telescope. (cast) the time and location of a meteor (breath) show of light can be viewed 20 PRACTICE 2 Form B A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 6 In no other part of the world have religious and cultural plurality co- existed and each other so creatively. (fertile) The principle of must be qualified in important respects - war crimes and acts of genocide can never be an internal matter. (interfere) Our aim is to gather intelligence from the local community and to work to tackle crime issues such as behaviour. (society) Other gifts have been received from far and wide, with heartfelt farming community. (league) messages of support for the Measures have been taken to rectify the situation, but there is still an impression of disillusion, if not (chant) Climbers are also advised to plan their routes carefully, to stick to paths and to stay together in groups. (tread) 7 Parents and came together to celebrate the birthday of Cat, who brought smiles and happiness into dozens of young lives. (wish) 8 Cancellation of an event and of performers or abandonment C are the main risk factors. (appear) The growth was funded at the cash-starved universities. (par) levels, barely juicy enough to tempt 10 There is contingency fuel on board for unforeseen changes, such as of bad weather or stronger headwinds. (navigate) 11 Not content with conquering dry land, the festival will also be with boat trips and river-related theatre. (bear) 12 The vacancies mean 13 14 could take place if ten electors in the town contact the council in writing saying that they want one. (elect) If I felt like jumping on the bandwagon, I could discuss how both of these films are abominations and just plain (sacred) Millions of children are pulled out of school to look after sick relatives, do paid work and run households. (break) 15 The law says young people cannot work in a place or job which is harmful to their health, or education. (good) 16 As a child these were the teachers whose constant put-downs and 17 made school life more miserable. (par) Cows that calve in hot summer months may experience a longer period from to subsequent pregnancy. (parent) 18 The objective is to maximise the potential for the physical, cancer service providers will be emotional and intellectual development of every child. (pair) 19 As a basis for this being 20 required to self-assess their performance against the standards. (peer) The facilities are currently provided to minimise the failure of software systems and to manage them when they do fail. (act) 21 B PRACTICE 2 FORM B Use the word-parts -mit- or -mis- (from mittere 'to send') to form a word that completes each sentence. 1 According to researchers, you 1 5 6 7 10 mit because you expect to have more time in the future than you do in the present. Because of the increased number of volunteer soldiers, the ministry will phase out recruitment of officers. mis By slightly increasing the latency the system can reduce packet loss and mis __ __ __ __, a trade-off that increases performance. E-mail and certain web applications are mis services, and the IT department actively monitors them. Even after months of debate, the statement was vague and perplexingly __ _-_ _ _ mit. on whether war would be justified. Free Primary Education and Free Day Secondary Education have been hampered by mit______ of funds to schools on time. He was ___ mit to the hospital and treated with an arthroscopic debridement of the knee on the 11th postoperative day. His objections to professional film actors and what he considered the mis .__ mixing of theatre and cinema are renowned. In their daily routine, the performers must obey the rules and regulations, and violations can lead to job __ _ _ mis __ __ __ Over generations his family sold pieces of their agricultural land as the only way to survive the ______ mit _______ onslaught of emergencies. 11 The bollard hit the news again when it was plagued by 1.3 13 14 15 mit mechanical problems and a new motor was fitted. and upheld a jury verdict for the defendant. The California court held that peer review evidence was mis The fundamental ___ mis _ of the publication is that early design for space travel was influenced largely by science fiction. The populations at risk are neonates and patients undergoing anti-cancer chemotherapy. mis__ The triage nurse mis ___, people

would be too drunk to notice they were injured, until they woke the next day doubly injured. 16 The turbines would have a lifespan of 25 years and after that period would be mis 17 They have established and dismantled. mit ____ of the board relating to issues such as education and training, risk management, and audit. Those on a student visa can apply for a(n) ________ mis _____ if they have a medical condition or there is a serious illness in the family. With global climate change and our dependence on foreign oil, the potential __ __ __ _-_ mis ______-__ mis _____ hydrogen economy appears a great hope. 20 With time allotted for - mis and publishing, it may take 19 a year or longer from that time until it can be seen in print. 22 ENTRY 3 A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Vacations would be - opportunities to get paid for not working, spending time with family, and recharging creative juices. (brain) 2 A journal editor, for example, has an interest in publishing controversial or 3 4 5 articles that will be quoted. (news) Within the last decade, has become part of the mainstream in education reform discussions. (school) access, the The building is being refitted to exceed requirements on energy-saving and using materials from sustainable sources. (able) Such tolerance of dishonesty in the educational system has students who have to compete with cheaters to get into college. (heart) 6 Financial repercussions can be astronomical, legal entanglements limitless, and the effect on business partners (calculate) 7 Some patients choose not to take hormone replacement, or they may have medical or experience hormonal side effects. (indicate) other age groups, In areas where the elderly population already the authorities have begun taking action. (number) Q This approach is a(n) consistent way to explain the cause of a wide variety of irreversible phenomenon. (theory) Having invented the lens in the 1940s, Graham became super rich and turned his attention to the decomposition of society. (shatter) B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Few sights are as (cap). From the (grace) to American environmentalists as (extant) of this beautiful bird (threat). that of a peregrine falcon nesting high on a rocky 1940s until the early 1990s, the very 3 of prey in North America was 4 5 (nominate) for their speed and skill in flight, peregrine falcons (medium) hawks. Basic 7 are small to 6 (food) of young peregrines consist & (dominate) of butterflies and dragonflies. Adults gorge themselves on rodents or small birds that they often (captive) in flight with a(n) 10 (custom), (dive) (stand) show of skill, strength, and speed. Peregrines average about 50 miles per hour in 11 level flight. However, scientists believe that when peregrines toward their prey, they can attain speeds of 200 to 300 miles per hour. (dome) in 14 (tree) tundra Peregrines tend to be regions (the Arctic areas of Alaska and Canada). They construct 15 (guise) nests in areas that are the natural 16 lemmings, and other small rodents. In the late 1940s North American 23 (round) of birds, mice, ENTRY 3 peregrines began to 17 19 (appear) at a(n) 18 (wind) and (count) pace. By the early 1970s the decline was 20 (spread). 21 (event), scientists determined what had happened. Up until 1972 Americans refused to heed (warn) of the effect on the food chain and used DDT and other pesticides to 23 insect 24 (strain) (habit). When fish, birds, and small rodents eat insects or (toxic) from the grain treated with pesticides, they take in the pesticides. 26 that have 27 (create) that feed on these animals eat the poisons (cumulus) in the animals' bodies. Since peregrines eat so many birds and rodents, they were 28 amounts of poison. The poisons 30 laid. The egg shells were so 31 eggs that did too few in number to 33 (pose) to 29 (mass) (form) the eggs that the falcons (frail) that they broke easily. Most (last) never hatched. The falcons that did hatch were (severe) in maintaining the population. In the early 1970s environmentalists took action. The American and Arctic peregrine was 34 1972 36 (mark) as a(n) 35 (regent) were passed (danger) species. In (script) most uses of DDT. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, along with other environmental agencies, 38 (augur) a(n) 39 (cover) program that 40 (duct) peregrines into the wild. Today thousands of peregrine pairs nest throughout Arctic North America and Alaska. Put the words given in the correct blanks, using their correct forms to make a meaningful passage. © abate brand fashion grade invent mean merchant sea merge misery spirit take (x2) vitamin world At the turn of this century, perhaps 1 names chosen by the 2 by a by some of the fanciful dotcom enterprises, it became increasingly for companies to change their names. A survey 4 firm of brand

consultants showed that, in 2000, no fewer than 250 British companies did so. Slightly over half of these 5 because of a merger However, that left 47% who changed their names with no clear reason for doing so, other than to 7 their reputation. Even the Post Office 8 or 6 help it to expand more (10) highly 11 which seek to (13) new products 15 itself under the new name Consignia, claiming this would 9 where its original name would have been even than the new one it had chosen. This assertion proved to be but perhaps one should feel over organisations their image through a name change or to 14 24 Word Formation Resource 3 OALD PRESCRIPTION 21 BRAIN birdbrain, brainbox, 22 brainchild, brain-damaged, brain-dead, brainiac, brainless, brainpower, brainstem, brainstorm(ing), brainteaser, brainwash(ing), brainwave, brainy, crackbrained, feather-brained, forebrain, hare-brained, hindbrain, lamebrain(ed), midbrain, no-brainer, scatterbrain(ed) NEWS newsagent, newscast(er), newsdealer, newsflash, newsgatherer, newsgathering, newsgroup, newsletter, news(wo)man, newspaper((wo)man), newspeak, newsprint, newsreader, newsreel, newsroom, news-sheet, news(-)stand, newswire, newsworthy, newsy; innovate, innovation, innovative, innovator(y), renovate, renovation, supernova; novelette, novelist(ic), novella, novelty, novice, noviciate, novitiate, novocaine, photonovel; anew, newbie, newborn, new-build, newcomer, new-fangled, newfie, new-found, newly-wed), newness, (non-)renewable(s), renew(al) renewed; neoclassical, neoclassicism, neo-colonialism, neocon(servative), neocortex, neodymium, neo-fascist, neoliberal, Neolithic, neologism, neon(atal), neonate, neophyte, neoplastic(ism), neoprene, neo-realist 23 SCHOOL homeschool(ing), 24 playschool, preschool, scholar(ly), scholarship, scholastic(ism), schoolboy, schoolchild, schooldays, schoolfellow, schoolgirl, schoolhouse, schoolie, schooling, schoolkid, school-leaver, school-leaving, schoolmarm(ism), schoolmaster, schoolmate, schoolmistress, schoolroom, schoolteacher, schoolwork, schoolyard; shoal; shallow(ly), shallowness, shallows ABLE ably, (dis)ability, inability, able-bodied, ableism, disable(d), disablement, enable(d), enabling, e-enabled, internet-enabled, unable, voice-enabled, web-enabled; rehab(ilitate), rehabilitation; avoirdupois; (dis)inhibit, (dis) inhibition, exhibit(ion), exhibitionism, exhibitionist, exhibitor, (un)inhibited, inhibitor, prohibit(ion(ist)), prohibitive(ly); (co)habit(ation), habitable, habitat, habit-forming, habitual(ly), habituated, habitué, inhabit(ant), (un)inhabited, uninhabitable >> THE EXHAUStive List of -ABLE & -IBLE ADJECTIVES 25 (in/un)alienable commutable allowable companionable (un)alterable (in)comparable amenable computable ami(c)able (in)conceivable (un)answerable conformable (in)applicable confusable bloggable bookable (un)breakable (un)able abominable absorbable THE EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF -ABLE ADJECTIVES deplorable (in)describable (un)desirable (un)acceptable breathable despicable (un)accountable (in)calculable detachable (un)achievable (in)capable actionable certifiable adaptable addressable adjustable admirable adorable (in)advisable affable (un) affordable (dis)agreeable (inter/un)changeable (re)chargeable (un)charitable classifiable clickable collectable (un)comfortable commendable communicable (un)detectable determinable detestable discoverable (in)dispensable disposable (in)disputable (in) distinguishable doable downloadable (un)drinkable ((un)en)durable (un)eatable editable (un)employable enforceable enjoyable equable appreciable (in)considerable (in)equitable (un)approachable consumable arable contactable (in)estimable exchangeable (un)arguable (un)controllable excitable arrestable (un)countable (in)excusable ascertainable (dis)creditable execrable ascribable culpable executable assessable cultivable expandable (un)attainable (in)curable expendable attributable damnable (un)available datable (un)avoidable bankable (un)bearable (un)believable biddable demonstrable (un)deniable ((non-)bio)degradable dependable debatable (in) definable delectable (in)explicable extendable fanciable (un)fashionable (un)favo(u)rable (non-/in)flammable (un)foreseeable (un)forgettable 26 (un)forgivable THE EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF -ABLE ADJECTIVES insurmountable interminable (un)obtainable (in(ter))operable (unin)habitable (in) heritable (dis)hono(u)rable

(in)hospitable formidable friable interpretable (non-)gradable inviolable irreparable (un)palatable (un)identifiable (un)imaginable (un)impeachable lamentable impeccable laudable imperturbable laughable irreproachable irrevocable irritable (un)justifiable knowledgeable (im)palpable (un)pardonable (im)passable (re)payable peaceable (im)penetrable pensionable (im)perishable (gas-/im)permeable personable implacable liable imponderable lik(e)able impregnable listenable pitiable (un)playable pleasurable impressionable liv(e)able pliable incommensurable lockable portable inconsolable lov(e)able potable incontestable malleable (im)practicable indecipherable (un)manageable (un)predictable indefatigable maneuverable preferable indictable manoeuvrable presentable indomitable marketable preventable indubitable marriageable (un)printable ineffable (im)measurable (im)probable ineluctable (un)memorable (un)profitable ineradicable merchantable programmable inescapable microwav(e)able (un)pronounceable inevitable inexorable miserable mov(e)able inextricable immovable (im)mutable navigable provable punishable quantifiable inflatable (un)questionable inimitable quotable innumerable (non-)negotiable reachable insatiable notable inscrutable insufferable insuperable insupportable observable noticeable notifiable (un)objectionable (machine-/un)readable realisable (un)reasonable receivable (un)recognisable 27 transferable transportable treasonable wearable (un)workable NOTES . Some of the adjectives (ir)reconcilable THE EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF -ABLE ADJECTIVES (un)sustainable (in)valuable (ir)recoverable rectifiable recyclable taxable (in)variable teachable venerable (un)tenable verifiable (ir)redeemable testable veritable redoubtable (un)thinkable referable (in)tolerable refillable traceable ((un)en)viable (in)vulnerable washable (non-refundable (in/re)tractable watchable (ir)refutable trad(e)able regrettable (un)reliable (un)remarkable (ir)remediable treatable removable repairable (un)repeatable (ir)replaceable replicable (dis)reputable unconscionable respectable unconsolable (ir)retrievable (non-)returnable rewritable saleable unsal(e)able ungovernable scalable uninsurable searchable unknowable (un)seasonable (in)separable (non-)renewable (un)serviceable tweetable unassailable unbeatable unbridgeable unchallengeable unconquerable understandable unexceptionable unfathomable unflappable unmentionable unmissable unmistak(e)able unputdownable unquenchable unshak(e)able siz(e)able skinnable (un)sociable (in)solvable unspeakable specifiable unstoppable (un)stable untouchable (un)suitable survivable (re/un)usable

unutterable in the list can be used as nouns. These include: collectable, confusable, consumable, disposable, durable, imponderable, inflatable, movable, notable, perishable, portable, probable, receivable, (non-)renewable, stable, undesirable, unmentionable, untouchable, valuable, variable. Nouns formed from these adjectives are usually or only in the plural. Look them up in the OALD to find out. There are some words in the list whose stems (or bases) no longer exist by itself. Can you find them? 28 (in)accessible (in)admissible (in)audible collapsible collectible combustible comestible THE EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF -IBLE ADJECTIVES (im)miscible negligible ostensible (im)perceptible (im)permissible (im)plausible (im)possible (in)compatible (ir)reducible (in)comprehensible reprehensible contemptible reproducible convertible (ir)resistible (in)corruptible (in)credible deducible (tax-)deductible (ir)responsible (ir)reversible risible (in)sensible submergible submersible (in)defensible (in)digestible dirigible suggestible (in) discernible susceptible (in) divisible (in)tangible (in)edible terrible (in)eligible (in)visible extendible OTHERS (in)fallible feeble (un)feasible treble (in)flexible forcible (ig)noble gullible horrible voluble incontrovertible incorrigible indelible indestructible inexhaustible double (in(dis))soluble NOTES . Some of the adjectives in the list can be used as nouns. These include: collectible, comestible, convertible, deductible, dirigible, intangible, possible, submergible, submersible, noble, double, treble. Nouns formed from these adjectives are usually or only in the plural. Look them up in the OALD to find out. There are some words in the list whose stems (or bases) no longer exist by itself. Can you find them? constable, deliverable, parable, crucible, foible, mandible, enfeeble, ennoble, chasuble, redouble are not adjectives. Use the OALD to check their parts of speech and meanings. inexpressible (un)intelligible invincible irascible irrepressible (il)legible 29 25 HEART big-hearted, Resource broken-hearted, cold-hearted, dishearten(ed), disheartening, downhearted, faint-hearted, good-hearted, half-hearted(ly), half-heartedness, hard-hearted, heartache, heartbeat, heartbreak(ing), heartbroken, heartburn, hearten(ing), heartfelt, heartily, heartiness, heartland(s), heartless(ly), heartlessness, heart-lung, heart-rending, heart-searching, heartsick, heart-stopping, heartstrings, heart-throb, heart-to-heart, heart-warming, heartwood, hearty, kind-hearted, light-hearted(ly), open-heart(ed), soft-hearted, stony-hearted, stout-hearted, sweetheart, tender-hearted, tweetheart, warm-hearted, wholehearted(ly), wholeheartedness; cardiac, cardio(logist), cardiology, cardiovascular, (electro)cardiogram; accord(ance), according(ly), accordion, camcorder, concord(ance/at), cord(ed), cordial(ity/ly), cordite, cordless, cordon, corduroy(s), discord(ant), needlecord, Palmcorder, pre-record, record-breaker/-breaking, record(er/ing/ist), ripcord, tape-record, unrecorded, whipcord; (clavi)chord, harpsichord(ist) 26 CALCULATE (in)calculable, 27 (in)calculably, calculated, calculating, calculation, calculator, calculus, miscalculate, miscalculation INDICATE (contra)indicate, (contra)indication, indicative, indicator; indices, indexation, index-linked, index-linking; (un)predictability, (un)predictable, (un)predictably, prediction, predictive, predictor; abdicate, abdication; addict(ed), addiction, addictive; benediction; contradict, (self-)contradiction, (self-)contradictory; dedicate(d), dedication; Dictaphone, dictate, dictation, dictator(ial(ly)), dictatorship, diction(ary), dictum; edict; indict(able), indictment, interdict(ion); predicament, predicate, predicative(ly); valediction, valedictorian, valedictory; verdict; vindicate, vindication, vindictive(ly), vindictiveness; avenge(r), revenge(d), vendetta, vengeance, vengeful(ly); preach(er), preachy; adjudge, adjudicate, adjudication, adjudicator, adjure, (extra)judicial, ill-judged, injure, (un)injured, injurious, (in)jury, (in)judicious(ly), judg(e)ment(al), judicature, 30 COMPOUND ADJECTIVES judicially, judiciary, juridical, jurisdiction(al), jurisprudence, jurist, juror, jury(wo)man, misjudge(ment), prejudge, prejudice(d), prejudicial, unprejudiced; (air-)conditioned, (un)condition(al(ly)), conditioner, conditioning, precondition, recondition, unconditioned 28 NUMBER numbered, numberless, outnumber, paint-by-numbers, unnumbered; alphanumeric(al), enumerate, enumeration, innumerable, (in)numerate, (super)numeracy, numeral, numerator, numeric(al(ly)), numerological, numerology, 29 numerous THEORY theorem, theoretical (ly), theoretician, theorise, theorising, theorist 30 SHATTER (earth-)shattering, shattered, shatteringly, shatter-proof; scatterbrain(ed), scattered, scattergram, scattergun, scattering, scattershot Compound Adjectives STUDY NOTES This book only deals with specific topics of compound adjectives. For more notes on compounding adjectives, please refer to advanced grammar textbooks. First, do the following quiz to revise some common adjectival compounds. Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 Local music is fast becoming a(n) industry thanks to the efforts of music lovers. (fly) The friends have evidently evaporated into thin air, effectively abandoning him. (weather) The scientists decided to partake in the event and joined another expedition. (epic) He hopes that the transatlantic challenge again will bring out the best in him. (wait) 5 In 1528 a Spanish exploration party leaving from Mexico were off the coast of Florida. (ship) 6 Much of his music is informed by his passion for sound- tracking and scoring. (depth) 7 The company is beginning to build up an eclectic collection of products. (edge) companies strategise how they can use resources in a renewable way. (see) A woman calls on behalf of her husband, who is because of swelling in his legs. (bed) 20 years after an execution, a confession emerges from a criminal who is (science) 11 With no roof over their head, these people faced the worst nightmare of their lives. (fall) 12 Even the most contenders were forced to admit in the end that it was impossible. (bite) » CORNUCOPIA 2 WORD FORMATION for more practice on compounds 31 COMPOUND ADJECTIVES It is common to describe people and animals using compound adjectives involving body parts. Examples: a long-necked, sharp-beaked bird; a pink-cheeked, green-eyed girl; a smooth-skinned lizard; cold-blooded reptiles. These adjectives relate to physical aspects of the creature or person described. There are also some which can be used to describe character, behaviour or ability. Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. They were considered the epitome of business thinking about public problems. (nose) 14 People can be so - light in public, but dismissive and rude in private when out of earshot. (face) 15 Botanical experts are urging homeowners to help save endangered species. (finger) 16 The government's handling of the crisis appeared and unsympathetic. (hand) 17 Make sure you put your stuff in a locker as there are a few people in this building. (finger) 18 Go to sleep now. We have to be bright-eyed and in the morning. (tail) 19 His belligerent, exterior has always encased a much more emotional inner centre. (skin) 20 An impossibly high, sound emitted from the speakers, shattering all the windows. (ear) 21 The pay packets of modern footballers are a regular topic of debate in public. (eye) 22 His memoir is a compelling and journey through his amazingly rich and full life. (eye) 23 The initial disbelief at the news was replaced by a(n) amalgamation of tears. (gut) 24 Viewers could not help screaming and offering instant forgiveness because the act. (hair) 25 She achieved a bronze medal for her efforts in the 1,500 metres final. (lung) 26 Sentimentality, bluegrass and performance make this an essential album. (jaw) Plans are still lacking on coping with the problems caused by mass tourism. (mind) 28 The semi-finals will be held in London and will culminate in the national final. (nail) 30 It's a(n) 29 Their show consists of two hours of adult comedy and brilliant live music. (side) fast-paced thriller packed with vivid descriptions of Egypt. (spine) The violence is, as advertised, and will literally have you lurching in your seat. (stomach) There are a few compound adjectives with body parts which do not relate to people or animals, e.g. round-necked, dog-eared, full-bodied. What objects or things do those adjectives to describe? To broaden your vocabulary, you can work with a partner and look up more -ing/-ed adjectival compounds with body parts in the OALD. 32 PRACTICE 3 Form A A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 As the Olympic Games return to the land of their birth, a revival of the ancient Greeks' other seems to be at hand as well. (brain) 4 6 and discussion board For serious blogging pundits and operators, cyber-cred is everything. (news) education and early family support have, in randomised trials, been shown to have positive health outcomes. (school) fridge was that you could tell, The idea behind the wireless without opening the door, whether you needed to restock. (able) He described Seamus O'Toole as a farmer's son who was well known for the and sincerity he brought to everything he did. (heart) Working conditions are very tense as the unemployed invariably wait for several hours leading to mistakes and (calculate) Beneath the surface of small-town serenity lies a dark domain where innocents dare not tread and is the norm. (predict) The press release announcing his initiative mentioned accelerators and various installations in the university laboratories. (number) transformational event that would have a This would be a(n) major social and economic impact across the region. (shatter) 10 If I wasn't such a(n) I would be able to focus on something more than the first interesting new bit and actually finish it. (scatter) The seemingly harmonious life of the family is shattered and they decide to go away to a distant place and begin life 12 The costs of wildlife 11 13 (new) air pollution reduction, and land degradation will haunt future generations. (rehab) Substances such as alcohol can interact with medications, patients and contribute to risky behaviour. (inhibit) 14 The country is currently governed by a(n) arrangement in which the president and prime minister belong to rival parties. (habit) 15 This is a sophisticated military operation that will require a great deal of planning and there are many (ponder) 16 The story explores how rules get made or changed and how environmental Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of are quantified. (tangent) 17 diseases such as heart attack and stroke. (cardiac) and the theory of the alleged temple was 18 All these details were 19 totally inconsistent with these details. (contradict) And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had themselves upon their enemies. (vengeance) 20 Tarzan, after being used to living in the jungle, couldn't to the idea of migrating to concretised world. (condition) 33 himself PRACTICE 3 Form A B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Perhaps one of the most ancient Maya. Many scientists believe they had the most society among the انے G (civic), which (thrall) cultures of all time is that of the (philosophy) (history) peoples of the Western World. The Mayan (life) from A.D. 250 to about A.D. 900, was (site) in southern Mexico and Central America. The original Maya was (sea) communities along the (dome) and formed (coast). Later they moved 10 (shear), where their 11 (subsist) was 12 (tangent) on agriculture. To 13 (lengthen) healthy crops of (pain) system for corn and other grains, they developed a(n) managing their water Hidden behind (topiary), the 18 (reserve).

(abound) vegetation and a difficult (remain) of most ancient Mayan cities were not (earth) until the 19th century. Around that time scientists began to (cipher) some of the picturelike 19 20 Mayan calendars. When researchers 22 calendar, they were stunned by its (glyph) markings on (pose) the Mayan calendar with the Christian (similarity). Mayan symbols, or glyphs, 24 (stand), did more than mark time on a calendar. Scientists (certify) that the (par) glyphs indicated major events that (fold) during the (cubicle) of various (blood), (ascension) who built small (imperial) the families in the 30 within the Mayan nation. These families passed their power on to their male 32 these 34 writing. (cede), creating an important and powerful (line). From (bonus) of art, architecture, and (king) came a(n) 65 (litho), carvings and 37 (brace) stone and 39 Mayan artists produced 36 jewellery. Mayan architecture 38 homes, pyramids, shrines small 41 priests 43 (eye) (earth) (sacred) to Mayan gods and goddesses, and (theatre) for athletic competition. Writings by Mayan scribes and (count) the lives and 43 (star) details of the times, a(n) 45 (chronic) of religious 47 (devoir) of nobles, 44 (labour) mythology, and 46 (rite) and other ceremonies. (wave) Up until about A.D. 900, the Maya were a more or less 49 society. Then they 49 and began to 50 Maya fell victim to crop and to 53 The 55 57 51 (scrutinise) abandoned the great centres of culture (local) to other areas. Over the next several centuries the (equal) and the (mission) wars, and European diseases. (sequel) famines, (nexus), (stay) cities had a(n) 56 (duration) Spanish 58 54 (pray) existence, yet some (quest) and internal (front) (reign) was taken by Spain. 34 until 1697, when the last Mayan PRACTICE 3 FORM B A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 The workshop is packed with lots of that show you things aren't always as you perceive them. (brain) They would rather run on wind power than contribute to the environm- -ental problems associated with rampant use of __. (new) 3 This week saw the launch of a glossy magazine that aims to encourage to contemplate a career in the tourism industry. (school) leached into the ground below as well. (habit) A leak of about 250,000 gallons of oil have made homes While dry goods can be sold for delivery virtually anywhere, have to be sold close to the destination. (perish) 6 and He's been down in every imaginable piece of diving gear known to man as well as a wide array of underwater and crafts. (merge) Some beggars use hard luck tales, often creating elaborate stories and faking emotion to tug at the (heart) Sending in inspectors into schools is just a(n) attack on the professional integrity of teachers. (judge) C The tiles were and insidious by being placed outdoors in a running seawater table for several weeks before their use in the experiment. (condition) 10 There is little longitudinal research concerning psychosocial changes occurring after entrance into seminaries or 11 (novice) This new, suspense-filled thriller from the acclaimed writer of the TV drama Prime Suspect makes 12 Governments are holiday reading. (put) optimists; they believe unabashed self- promotion will yield electoral dividends. (correct) 13 There's a chance to enjoy some of the greatest goals the game has 14 15 seen, stunning comebacks and Plastics are victories. (record) they are unable to be broken down by bacteria in the environment and can cause damage to our ecosystems. (grade) His youthful appearance camouflages the effects of the foreboding situations that have shaped and marked him for life. (delete) The pressures of the classroom moment do not lend themselves to a dialogue about these underlying and 17 Oil and water are differences. (measure) liquids, but a temporary emulsion may be formed by a brisk shaking of the liquids. (mix) 18 This is an inspirational success story, proving that seemingly setbacks can be overcome on the road to glory. (mount) 19 Earthly things were mortal - subject to change and transition - while the stars and planets were eternal and 20 The (rupture) differences revealed by the different exhibits actually fuel debate and provoke thought. (conciliate) 35 B PRACTICE FORM B Use the word-parts -man- (from manus 'hand') or -audi- (from audire 'to hear') to form a word that completes each sentence. A key to -man is that the learner is empowered and responsibility is shifted from teacher to learner. Companies that rely solely on such approach may find themselves by competitors with more imagination. man Conservatives want less red tape and ___ man from people out in the provinces are now pen pushers, so we can put more police officers back on patrol. 1 Even the ______-man 5 saying that there will be civil disobedience. Everything is ___. _-man _______ to the point where it is impossible to separate the real from the performed anymore. 6 Evidently, if the proposal is followed strictly, the resultant tariff structure will be inconsistent and ____ man. 7 His badly man___ team played with heart but had no hope of matching the two great world powers of the game. Local authorities have become vast empires of superfluous activity, man _____ at taxpayers' expense. Overall, 39 per cent of shoppers admit they can be incredibly selfish and _____-man __ out on the high street. 10 That was back in 1965 when earth's first ___ man snapped 22 grainy photos of the red planet. mission to Mars 11 The country was led by one political party, which was often accused of _ the economy and abusing the rights of citizens. man 1.3 The documentary is a thousand times more man deceptive than the work of fiction. 13 The little white house with the perfectly man fence to keep him and his family safe. and garden and 14 This new material can be used at the vehicle's leading edges, allowing for more aerodynamic and man 15 This synthetically man sanction for further acts of aggression. 16 With his eloquent __ man 17 designs. fear is used to gain public _________ at his elbow, he cast back to the wartime experience for a solution. At times he seemed to be in a colloquy with his disciples, though sadly their questions were __ audi___ to us. 19 The actual meaning of the noun is, most likely, 'disaster,' with a(n) audi_______ of 'terror'. 19 The co-op offers packages grouped according to ethnicity, borough and frequency, and verifies ___ audi ______ circulations. 20 Through his well-developed — audi___ abilities, she sometimes saw and communicated with inner-world beings. 36 Entry 4 A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 3 5 6 My research showed that the questionnaire concerned was basically to general population groups. (apply) The calendar presenting a selection of rarely seen paintings of India is finally here. (master) of the mural If we are to mature as a society as well as a

nation, then we should put prejudices behind us, stop the silly jokes, and grow up. (date) Some of you may have got wind of this important event, but for those who have not, let us deliver some (light) We make the same mistakes when it comes to wedding gifts, birthday presents, anniversaries, gifts etc. (house) The problem with success too often is it creates expectations or even among critics and fans alike. (conceive) 7 It's true that repeating a word Q actually lessens its impact and, in general, makes you feel better about it. (cease) Beautiful weather favoured the opening of the fair, a(n) institution which has been held for the last thirty years. (establish) Whenever Billy comes visiting, she becomes and angry, leaving postmortem mission but do not want to Sarah bewildered and Annie even more upset. (bad) 10 We are forever on a(n) prescribe solutions to problems. (fury) B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Some may claim it 1 (fetch), but it's no 2 (state) to say that Pecos Bill pretty much made the West what it is today. Even now, on quiet summer nights the 3 the day Pecos Bill 5 (time) like to 4 (cook) that 6 lasso or how he taught them to round up some claim he even made it rain once. It all started when Bill was just a baby. When 8 just 50 miles away his pa decided things were getting (mind) about (new) gadget called the (life) for market. Why, (come) moved in (crowd). He piled Bill and his 12 brothers and sisters into a wagon and set out for the West. While trying to 10 (otiose) a rocky riverbed the wagon hit a huge rock, bouncing Bill out on the ground. Since there were so many 11 it was weeks before anyone missed him. 12 plains, Bill was 13 (vigour) and 15 (spring) (correct) on the Texas (nutrient) by coyotes, and he grew up 14 (heart). But as he was (gregarious) from people, he thought he was a coyote too. Then one day a cowboy came along and 17 (victor) Bill that he was human. 37 ENTRY 4 Pecos Bill decided that he would be a cowboy. He (solve) to be (stride) a the best one in the West. While others rode horses, Bill 19 mountain lion. He taught men how to use spurs, and he made the first ten- gallon hat. Bill and some other cowboys were out riding one day when a big rattlesnake reared its head in their path. The others were (panic) and ran off, but not Bill. He jumped from his mountain lion, grabbed the snake by the tail, and whipped it around like a rope. Then he made a(n) 21 (voluble) in one end of the snake and began tossing it over the necks of lizards and other animals. The cowboys were (thunder) by what they saw. Up until then they caught their cattle by sneaking up on them and tying their feet together before they could run off. Now they had a lasso. Many cowboys rode 23 (tame) horses, but Pecos Bill once rode a cyclone. It happened the year when there was no 24 were dying of 25 powder. When a(n) 27 (hydro). Crops had 26 (pour). Cattle (weather) to a brown (whirl) black cloud came spinning toward the (siccative) ground Bill leaped on it and dug his spurs into its side until water came down in 29 (toast). He rode the cyclone over three states, finally falling to the ground in California. The 30 (press) he left in the ground is now called Death Valley. Put the words given in the correct blanks, using their correct forms to make a meaningful passage. clear filial interest presence shape clove form labour print sinus dome hold lie saint structure except impel post sake vivid Civilisation can be 1 in many ways and has different things: to Levi-Strauss its feature was boiled food; Nietzsche An old and 7 Yet it is not too vision of At the heart of every wanted to reverse it; Arnold Toynbee called it 'progress towards We all use the word loosely to mean culture we 5 late to rescue civilisation from what it means to be civilised is waiting to be civilising project there is a common 10 in 12 nature, to mould earth, 11 this is the human itch to waves and warp environments ways. Civilisations are actively engaged in 13 with new patterns of 15 for human use, landscapes 14 channels, field systems and street grids. In 16 from nature altogether, to 18 17 and to 19 the wild man within by (20) 38 the world and cases, civilisations try to the animal side of humanity manners. Word Formation Resource 4 OALD PRESCRIPTION 31 APPLY applied, (mis/re)apply, appliance, applicability, (in)applicable, applicant, (mis)application, applicator 32 » CORNUCOPIA 2 WORD FORMATION MASTER bandmaster, bushmaster, choirmaster, concertmaster, gangmaster, harbourmaster, headmaster, housemaster, masterclass, masterful(ly), masterly, mastermind, masterpiece, masterstroke, masterwork, mastery, paymaster, (sub-)postmaster, premaster, quartermaster, quizmaster, remaster, ringmaster, schoolmaster, scoutmaster, spymaster, stationmaster, taskmaster, toastmaster, webmaster; magisterial(ly), magistracy, magistrate; miss, mister, (sub-post)mistress DATE antedate,

backdate, datable, datebook, dating, dative, double-date, mandate(d), outdated(ness), post-date, predate, predation, (un)dated, update; (ptero)dactyl; dado; (bio)data, databank, database, datacom(m)s, datum, metadata, viewdata; dowager, dowry, endow(ment), well-endowed; addendum, adder, add-in, addition(al(ly)), additive, add-on; perdition; copy-edit, editable, edition, editor(ial(ise)), editorship, 39 34 subedit(or); heart-rending, render(ing), rendezvous, rendition, surrender; (non-)traditional, tradition(alism), traditionalist, traditionally; vend(ing), vendor LIGHT alight, backlight, backlit, candlelight, candlelit, daylight(s), delight(ed(ly)), delightful(ly), downlight(er), enlighten(ed), enlightening, enlightenment, fanlight, firelight(er), flashlight, floodlight(ing), footlights, gaslight, green-light, half-light, headlight, highlight(er), lamplight, lamplit, light-colo(u)red, lighten, lighten, lighter, lightfast, light-fingered, light-footed, light-headed(ly), lighthouse, lighting, lightly, lightness, lightning, lightship, lightweight, limelight, lowlights, microlight, moonlight, moonlit, red-light, searchlight, sidelight, skylight, spotlight, starlight, starlit, stoplights, sunlight, sunlit, tealight, torchlight, twilight, twilit, ultralight, unlit, uplight(er); leucocyte, leuk(a)emia, leukocyte; elucidate, elucidation, lucid(ity), lucidly, Lucifer, pellucid, translucence, translucency, translucent; aqualung, heart-lung, lung-busting, lungfish, lungful, lungwort townhouse, warehouse, warehousing, wheelhouse, workhouse; huddle(d) Resource 35 HOUSE alehouse, almshouse, art-house, bakehouse, bathhouse, blockhouse, boathouse, brewhouse, bunkhouse, clubhouse, coalhouse, cookhouse, courthouse, deckhouse, doghouse, dollhouse, dosshouse, farmhouse, firehouse, flophouse, front-of-house, funhouse, gatehouse, glasshouse, greenhouse, guardhouse, hothouse, houseboat, housebound, houseboy, housebreaker, housebreaking, house-broken, housecoat, housefly, houseful, household(er), house-hunter, house-hunting, housekeeper, housekeeping, housemaid, houseman, housemaster, housemate, housemistress, houseplant, house-proud, houseroom, house-sit, house-to-house, house-trained, housewares, house-warming, housewife(ly), housework, housing, hussy, icehouse, in-house, jailhouse, lighthouse, longhouse, madhouse, malthouse, outhouse, penthouse, playhouse, poorhouse, powerhouse, rehouse, roadhouse, roughhouse, roundhouse, schoolhouse, shophouse, slaughterhouse, steakhouse, storehouse, tollhouse, CONCEPT (in)conceivable, (in)conceivably, concept(ion), conceptual(ise), conceptualism, conceptualist, conceptuality, conceptually, high-concept, ill-conceived, misconceive(d), misconception, preconceived, preconception; conceit(ed(ly)); perceive, (im)perceptible, (im)perceptibly, perception, perceptive(ly), perceptiveness, perceptron, perceptual, percipient; chemoreceptor, receipt, receivable(s), receive(d), receiver(ship), receptacle, reception(ist), receptive(ness), receptivity, (photo)receptor, recipe, recipient, transceiver; acceptability, (un)acceptable, (un)acceptably, acceptance, acceptation; precept(ion); inception, incipient; intercept(ion), interceptor; contraception, contraceptive; deceit(fully)), deceitfulness, deceive(r), (self-)deception, deceptive(ly); exception(al(ly)), unexceptionable, (un)exceptional; susceptibility, susceptible; anticipate, anticipation, anticipatory, unanticipated; participant, participate, participation, participatory; capability, (in)capable, capably, capacious, capacitance, capacitor, 40 Resource (in)capacity, incapacitate, overcapacity; capsicum, capstan, capstone, capsule, encapsulate, encapsulation; caption, captivate, captivating, captive, captivity, captor, (re)capture, closed-captioned; bookcase, briefcase, carcase, carcass, case(d), casebook, caseload, casement, case-sensitive, case-work(er), casing, casual(ization), casually, casualness, casualty, casuistry, encase, headcase, nutcase, occasion(al(ly)), occasions, pillowcase, showcase, slipcase, staircase, suitcase, worst-case; casket, casserole, cassette, cassoulet, chassis; cashback, cashed-up, cashier, cashless,

cashpoint, cash-starved, cash-strapped, e-cash, encash(ment), Transcash; bycatch, catch-22, catch-all, catcher, catching, catchline, catchment, catchpenny, catchphrase, catch-up, catchword, catchy, cowcatcher, dogcatcher, dreamcatcher, eye-catching, flycatcher, line-caught, oystercatcher, Spycatcher; cater(er), (self-)catering; chaser, chasseur, paperchase, steeplechase(r); cop(-out), copper-(bottomed), copperhead, copperplate, coppery; prince(ling), princely, princess, principal(ity), principally, principle(d), unprincipled; premier(e), premiership; prim(a(cy)), prim(a)eval, primal, primarily, primary, primate, prime(r), primitive(ly), primitiveness, primitivism, primly, primogeniture, primordial, primp, primrose, primula, prissy, pump-priming, subprime; recuperate, recuperation, recuperative; (am)munition, communal(ism), communally, commune, communicable, communicant, (ex) communicate, (ex) communication, communicative, communicator, communion, communiqué, communism, communist, community, incommunicado, intercommunication, municipal(ity), munitions, telecommunication(s), uncommunicative; munificence, munificent, remunerate, remuneration, remunerative; common(er), commonhold, common-law, (un)common(ly), commonplace, commonwealth 37 CEASE ceasefire, ceaseless(ly), cess(at)ion, incessant(ly), unceasing(ly); abscess; accede, (self-)access, (in)accessibility, (in)accessible, accession, accessorise, accessory, multi-access, random-access; ancestor, ancestral, ancestry, ancient(ly); antecedent; cede; concede, concession(aire), concessionary, concessive; decease(d), predecease; excessive(ly), exceed(ing(ly)); intercede, intercession; precede(nce), precedent, predecessor, unprecedented (ly), (micro)processor, multi-processor; procedural, procedure, proceed(s), 41 Resource 38 29 proceeding(s), process(ing), procession(al), reprocess; recede, recess (ion(ary)), recessive; secede, secession(ist); succeed, success(fully)), succession, successive(ly), successor, unsuccessful (ly); necessaries, (un)necessarily, (un)necessary, necessitate; need-blind, needful, needless(ly), needs, need-to-know, needy ESTABLISH old-established, (dis)establish(ment), (well-established; backstage, downstage, offstage, onstage, stagecoach, stagecraft, stagehand, stage-manage, stage-struck, stag(e)y, staging, upstage; superstition, superstitious(ly); homestay, long-stay, mainstay, outstay, overstay, short-stay, stay-at-home, staycation, stayer, staying; staid; constable, constabulary, (de)stabilise, (de)stabilisation, (in)stability, stabiliser(s), stableman, stablemate, stable(s), unstable MISLEADING NEGATIVES warpath, warplane, warring, warrior, warship, wartime, war-torn 40 FAULT default(er), double-fault, fault-finding, faultless(ly), faulty, no-fault;

false(ly), falsehood, falsettist, falsetto, falsies, falsification, falsify, fail(ed), failing, fail-safe, failure, pass-fail, unfailing(ly); fallacious, fallacy, fallback, (in)fallibility, (in)fallible, infallibly; befall, (crest)fallen, downfall, fall(ing)-off, falling(-out), fallopian, fallout, fall-pipe, footfall, landfall, nightfall, outfall, pitfall, pratfall, rainfall, rockfall, shortfall, snowfall, waterfall, windfall MISLEADING Negatives STUDY NOTES NEGATIVES The prefixes un-, in- and dis- are commonly used with adjectives to make opposites. However, there are a number of examples where adding one of these prefixes does not make following pairs of adjectives. the opposite adjective. Look at the BAD badass, baddy, badlands,. badly(-off), badmash, bad-mouth, badness, bad-tempered; worse-off, worsen (ing), worst-case; interwar, man-of-war, post-war, pre-war, warfare, warhead, warhorse, warlike, warlock, warlord, warmonger(ing), warpaint, One pair actually has the same meaning. Identify this pair and write a definition for these words. . For the other pairs, what is the difference in meaning? Write a definition for each adjective. 42 If one word in each case is not the opposite, can you think of a word which is? Check all of your answers in the dictionary. MISLEADING NEGATIVES 1 different, indifferent 2 flammable, inflammable famous, infamous Replace each adjective from the context with a negative synonym. 4 I am sure I can trust what my solicitor says because she is disinterested. As an actor he has played some unsavoury characters including blackmailers and thieves. The small or extremely immature infant < 1000 g will experience increased insensible water losses. The evidence that you supplied to the police was invaluable in the capture of the murderer. Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. He has spent decades the idea that he is an icon of his people and they are inseparable. (plant) The pair emerged but a female friend suffered serious injuries. (scathing) 10 The parties shall me for all reasonable costs of defending such proceedings. (damage) He was surrounded by his friends, all of them just gossiping like the idiots they are. (bacteria) 12 He apologised to fans for all the recent that have shaken the public confidence. (bacteria) 13 They are graduates of the best universities and can speak English. (peccadillo) COMPOUND Verbs 14 The gridlock has become a significant to the economy, preventing free and trade. (pedal) 15 His track record is and there can be no doubt he knows the game inside out. (pedal) >> Cornucopia 2 Word FormaATION for more practice on misleading negatives Compound Verbs STUDY NOTES Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. He created a number of fictitious characters which he manipulated to his new friend. (wash) Let them find their own way out of their befuddlement: There is no need to them. (feed) 3 Microsoft and Cisco have outlined plans for acquisitions to

international consolidation. (start) 4 Finished concrete basements that haven't been from the outside are problematic. (water) 5 They cannot compete with chains that cakes, resulting in poor flavour and character. (duct) 6 The creatures play an important role in the changing composition and the seabed. (clean) As for the introductory spiel, this gig was a private party by a few thousands of fans. (crash) Practically everyone in the bar was and there was limited ventilation in the room. (smoke) » CORNUCOPIA 2 Word FormATION for more practice on compounds 43 Blended Words Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets to create blends. 1 Existing are extrapolated from mortuary records, media reports and military data. (guess) The between their husbands started to annoy the housewives. (brother) The government is taking steps that will be a powerful deterrent against (wash) 4 Fun and interactive exhibits will turn the venue into a(n) centre for children. (educate) 5 Attempt the task only if you have all your ready, all your figures and answers. (rebut) 6 She stood by the array of weird electronic devices, and their sheer size. (confound) The conventions should be covered and given free airtime to do their (info) By sheer the challenge of skyrocketing prices coincided with the waning economy. (happen) His old mother is a constant drain on his increasingly shaky resources. (rancour) 10 Swimming programs, such as and swimming lessons, are popular among kids. (aero) 11 Many companies allow their employees to work or work from home. (time) Observers estimated the cost to farm producers and over $100 million. (busy) PHRASAL COMPOUNDS Phrasal nouns, e.g. warm-up, outset, and phrasal adjectives, off-putting, outspoken, are quite common compounds in English. They are very often formed from phrasal verbs, but this is not always the case. For instance, write sb/sth off produce write-off, but onset does not relate to a phrasal verb (aka. prepositional compound). Most phrasal nouns and adjectives follow the pattern verb + particle, e.g. build-up, live-in; some, however, are formed with particle + verb, e.g. upbringing, forthcoming. A few phrasal verbs can form both types of nouns and there are usually differences in meaning and collocation. When the particle is second, we sometimes use a hyphen and sometimes form a single word. There seem to be no rules on this. The stress is always on the first part of the noun, whichever form it takes. Countable phrasal nouns usually take -s in the plural form at the end of the word, e.g. break-ins, bystanders, flare-ups; however, there are some exceptions, e.g. passers-by, goings-on, tellings-off. Dictionaries can be helpful in highlighting phrasal nouns and adjectives alongside the related verbs, particularly the OALD and the Oxford Phrasal Verbs Dictionary. Raising your awareness of this will broaden your syntactic range, especially at an advanced + level. More practice on phrasal nouns and adjectives can be found in: to be ❤ » CORNUCOPIA 2 Word FormATION for the list of blends from the OALD •

Cornucopia 1 & 2 Word Formation Oxford Word Skills - Idioms and Phrasal Verbs Cambridge Phrasal Verbs in Use 44 PHRASAL & PRepositional Compound Nouns *Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 6 Military officials have said the order to strike again would not have been given had many been present. (stand) An area of Didsbury village was brought to a standstill as some grabbed wads of notes and ran off themselves. (pass) The camera then proceeds to pan around to a small group of witnessing the execution. (look) Washington's decision to send its own inspectors raises the possibility with Britain. (fall) of The country was hit by the of a financial crisis that began in Thailand, on the opposite side of the globe. (wash) from all A fairly recent development in the comic book industry has been to foster a range of including toys and other merchandise. (spin) They were convicted and executed, despite a massive over the world against this barbaric treatment. (cry) 8 Surveys and and internet tutorials are all there on screen, and getting brighter and easier to use every month. (feed) The teacher saw a situation getting out of hand, defused it skilfully, gave me some firm but slightly more sympathetic 10 When the last of the Christmas 11 (tell) are gone, it's surprising what can be made from the contents of an empty cupboard. (leave) The current saga over refugee would pale in comparison to the thousands of Indonesians fleeing a balkanising archipelago. (fluid) 12 These represent relapses and sufferers have generally 13 experienced anorexia as an adolescent. (flare) Police are hailing raids as part of a national drink-driving an overnight success. (crack) on illegal drugs and 14 Opera singers have 'doubles', or who are able to take over a role in case of the principal's absence. (student) 15 These 16 17 wearing red badges, only take orders from the luxury- box people, communicating by means of hand signals. (go) With varied geographic backgrounds, faiths and languages, people make more of an effort to find common ground. (bring) The and the movements and what nurses have to do now in the ward area is just incredible, and the beds are never cold. (put) 18 This hybrid of history and travel writing explores the world of and adventurers that lay behind Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. (cast) 19 The western regions of the vast central nation have been deluged by heavy as the rainy season gets into full swing. (pour) Parents have a special seating area where they can keep a close eye on their as the children burn off some excess energy. (spring) 45 20 PHRASAL & PREPOSITIONAL COMPOUND ADJECTIVES *Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 The upshot was that, although approved, the reforms were too to have any serious effect on the deficit. (water) A pair of love birds knew what it was like to be treated like royalty when a(n) letter from the Queen arrived by special delivery. (long) Piles of junk mail littering the hallways of a communal block of flats, for instance, can be very to potential buyers. (put) 4 It is 6 7 The times and also behaviour by our beloved fans to throw obstacles on the pitch since this would tarnish the image of our football. (call) The book contains many photographs of includes former electric tramways in the area. (go) improvements in average life expectancy in the 20th century have thrust ageing to the forefront of attention. (dream) The opposition parties are growing more confrontational, trading accusations and even blows on the legislative floor. (trump) The public has confidence because the reforms are timely, sensible, affordable and doable. (think) He is a controversial and outspoken defender of the operatic form, and a passionate advocate of opera in English. (speak) 10 This detriment can, I think, best be characterised as the acceptance or 11 continuance of a(n) credit risk. (look) Our posters tend to be a bit wittier and more direct, whereas the German contingent are more visionary and (lift) 12 Of most interest to Drake obsessives is Tow the Line, a(n) song discovered lurking at the end of an old master tape. (hear) 13 The NRA should understand that we are not second class citizens and will not stand for this treatment. (hand) 14 Diesel has become the clothing line of choice for fashionistas and fashion civilians alike. (fashion) 15 The latest figures on teacher numbers are another sign of 16 success on the domestic front, according to the government. (soar) He is friendly but mostly when the conversation comes around by those desirous of to his marketing tricks and strategies. (come) 17 The course offered by the college is much making a career in the film industry. (seek) 18 Needless to say her lectures were - at her opening address, — 200 students turned up to a lecture hall designed for 35. (script) 19 This movie does what dozens of Caucasian-centred films have done: explore tired themes via a(n) 20 cliché-riddled storyline. (wear) Detectives would like to hear from anyone who may have noticed anything around the train station at any time. (ward) 46 PRACTICE 4 Form A A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 4 All too often the virtual worlds visited by videogamers are illogical and littered with disruptive of design. (apply) Police assume that this was about the time when the criminal abandoned their plan and ran off. (master) It was announced towards the end of last month that refurbishment aimed at the clock had been completed. (date) The high price here reflects the use of expensive, materials 6 such as magnesium and titanium alloys. (light) It was Einstein's the 1915 general theory of relativity that was first put to a public test, making the name 'Einstein' a(n) word. (house) There are

sound, practical grounds for arguing that such an approach would be impractical and dangerous. (conceive) 7 Although they did visit from time to time, the island's put a strain on the boys' closeness to their maternal grandmother. (access) This bill is being brought in one year after the board was without consultation with the sector itself. (establish) Discussions about new technology, drugs, health or the environment invariably focus on scenarios. (bad) 10 Real wisdom means knowing truth from knowing the - methods of collecting personal difference between evidence and wishful thinking. (false) 11 Few organisations used 13 14 history information with relatively high validity. (data) The Prince listened as his former shipmate recounted a(n) story of his wife's illness and his own plunge into depression. (render) The use of therapies may result in delayed seeking of conventional health care options and worsening symptoms. (tradition) We will be closer to the basis of quintessentially human qualities like language and self-awareness. (lucid) 15 Without museums, the skills of the sculptor and the various dialects of tribes in the country would have been now. (perceive) 16 In a civilised country, legislation to protect kids from violence and harassment in their schools should be 17 Despite its budget and nearly (except) number of release prints, Ginger Snaps feels like a very collaborative effort. (precede) 18 I have a great aunt named Sally, who always meant well, but was constantly messing things up and her welcome. (stay) 19 The film tells the story of a ragged group of orphans who attempt a desperate walk to freedom across a(n) country. (war) but 20 Two heads are better than one, not because either is because they are unlikely to go wrong in the same direction. (fail) 47 PRACTICE 4 Form A B) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. Anyone who has (collect) it. The first (go) an earthquake will never fail to (lash) against the 5 (control) shaking is usually tumble from shelves and 7 (see), (heave). Then as plates (lesion) with the floor and lights (head) begin to sway, one begins to € (prehensile) what is happening. Earthquake! Though scientists have learned a great deal about the cause of earthquakes, they remain one of the most 10 (dictate) of all naturally occurring (temple) the pattern of earthquakes 11 (phantom). After 12 over long periods of time, scientists do know that earthquakes are not simply (cadence) events. Instead, they 14 13 (dominate) happen along what 15 (pertinent) to fault lines. They also know that certain areas of the earth are more likely to 16 (trek) earthquakes than others. The 17 (out) layer of the earth, called the crust, is not one large, (pair) covering. It is made up of huge plates 19 (plentiful). The places where these plates rub against one another are called faults. The movement of these 20 (face) against one another causes pressure to (rupture) slip free, jolting the earth. The 18 build till the plates 27 (go) increase in pressure between the plates may take hundreds or even thousands of years to reach the point where the plates slip. In some cases a small tremor may earthquake. and the 26 (potent) to 28 Their 29 31 (seek) the 24 (merge) of a major (stand), just where and when this "slipping" will occur (severe) of the jolt it will give the earth are (pin). (look) occurrence and capacity for massive (structure) have made earthquakes the cause of some of history's greatest (cataract). A 1985 earthquake in Mexico City killed 1,000 people when a hospital collapsed floor upon floor. A 1971 earthquake in Peru broke huge chunks of ice from the Andes mountains. The mudflow caused by the 33 (sequel) (melt) ice killed 50,000 people. The Lisbon, Portugal, earthquake of 1755 occurred while many people were attending church services. In the 34 (move) that followed the first tremor people rushed from church, only to be crushed by the collapsing walls. About 60,000 people died in that 35 (calamitous). 48 PRACTICE FORM B A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. that fall along Everyone enters the world with different natural a distribution of emotional, cognitive and sensory capabilities. (dowry) This herbal remedy is a plant that grows wild in the mountains and is safe and with no side effects. (add) Put in a heavy saucepan with the olive oil and fry over a moderate heat for a few minutes until the onion is Parents are often physically (lucid) through drugs or emotionally destroyed by having suffered themselves as children. (capable) The crux of our submission in response is our written submissions. (capsule) in paragraph 20 of 6 A third party is thought to be on the brink of buying the business and providing a secure future for the staff. (cash) The old pavilion had been knocked down to be replaced by a new structure in the style of its These two characters have a(n) (precede) life during which they rely on each other's support for the vicissitude that is to befall them. (stage) No amount of muckraking or can divert attention from the mess the government will leave behind. (war) 10 Critics were left to slink away with remember their dire predictions. (fall) 11 The report faces, hoping no one would persisting gender disparities, particularly in juggling 12 For the landowners, a(n) stadium would offer an attractive 13 the work-family balance. (light)

catalyst for the wider development of the area. (catch) There are so many possible reasons for refusing your request, in fact, that to many the whole thing may seem like a(n) 14 History shows us that it is in exactly such times that as Schröder can be expected to do crazy things. (prince) (cop) men such 15 Few people apart from experts in the field have any inkling that 16 Nietzsche his sister by some 35 years. (cease) the economy and union Their leaders would be investigated for members would be disciplined or sacked. (stable) 17 Patrick was a popular and esteemed member of the local rural community and much sadness was by his death. (case) 18 Once students understand this language, they can put this new literacy into practice in with teachers and their peers. (communal) and false consciousness cannot be taken care of by any techniques of reconciliation. (deceive) 19 Ignorance, 20 It's an opportunity to brush up on your English, memories of a past visit and get first-hand information for the trip. (captive) 49 B 1 PRACTICE 4 FORM B Use the word-part -pen- (from pendere 'to weigh, hang or pay') to form a word that completes each sentence. All are pen______, especially with each other but also with national institutions in the member states. Birds are opportunistic and tend to feed at plants that offer the most reward for the least energy _ _ pen Derek constantly pen __for his lack of intelligence by proclaiming himself the smartest man alive. pen his Despite lavishing on his campaigns and opponents, his political ambitions have met with little success. 5 Every advance in knowledge has to be earned by a painful struggle against our spontaneous for ignorance. 7 pen Few nurseries are willing to spend the years of unpaid dedication and pen___ expenses that growers do on a favourite plant. Greater equality is a moral imperative and a(n) _____ pen_ element in the battle to eliminate poverty. Having ____ pen _ my day staring at blogs, I found myself without an appropriate focus for tomorrow's comp class. In case of liver __pen. and if the patient is a suitable candidate, liver transplantation is the only treatment that extends life. Journalists tend to stockpile information, and it leaks out through our communication like air around a(n) pen vacuum seal. 11 Many young adults living with their parents had the freedom while still managing to live a(n) penlifestyle. 1.3 More affordable access to land would be likely to generate employment and increase - ___ pen 13 Of the three really huge catastrophes __ pen 14 15 pen in the next century, it seems improbable that we can avoid more than one or two. One way to ensure that you're not household budget is to buy competitively priced flat-pack furniture. The bullet removed, he's kept in a(n) hospital, but his condition is not life-threatening. on your pend ____ unit at a 16 The college's comprehensive fee covers the application and studio art fee, activity deposit, program tuition and ________-pen __ __ __ __ package. 17 The program is for those working on issues such as addictions, pen_____ and dysfunctional family issues. 19 They are concerned about our ______ pen ____ and what that does to us from a security standpoint. 19 This council must make up for all the pen find themselves out at the council elections this year. — — - upon foreign oil or they will 20 This is a massive, _____ pen ________ and copiously researched book that tells the whole of what used to be called 'our island story'. 50 Word Formation Resource 5 Colour PresCRIPTION 41 RED blood-red, red-blooded, redbreast, red-brick, redcap, redcoat, redcurrant, redden, reddish, red-eye, red-faced, red-handed, redhead, red-headed, red-hot, reddish-brown, red-letter, red-light, redneck, redness, redshank, redskin, red-top, redwood, ruddy 42 43 ORANGE orangeade, Orangeman, orangery YELLOW yellow-bellied, yellow-belly, yellowhammer, yellowish, Yellowknife, yellowness, Yellowstone, yellowy; jaundice(d); goldbrick, goldcrest, gold-digger, golden, goldfield, goldfinch, goldfish, gold-plated, goldsmith, goldwasser, mangold, marigold growbag, (wine)grower, Growmore, grown(-up), home-grown, (in)growing, (in)grown, outgrow(th), overgrown, (over)growth, undergrowth 45 BLUE bluebell, blueberry, bluebird,

blue-blooded, bluebottle, blue-chip, blue-collar, blue-eyed, 46 bluegrass, bluejay, blueness, blue-on-blue, blueprint, blues, blue-sky, bluestocking, bluesy, Bluetooth, china-blue, ice-blue, sky-blue, true-blue BROWN brown-bag, browned, brownfield, brownie, brownish, brown-nose, brown-out, brownstone, browny, nut-brown, reddish-brown; auburn; baize; Bayswater, Baywatch, bevel(led), sickbay; albinism, albino, album(en) 44 GREEN bottle-green, evergreen, greenback, green-collar, greenery, green-eyed, 47 PURPLE porphyry, purplish greenfield, green-fingered, 48 greenfly, greengage, greengrocer, greenhorn, PINK pink-collar, pinkie, pinking, pinkish, pinkness, pinko, pinky greenhouse, greening, greenish, 49 green(s)keeper, green-light, greenness, Greenpeace, greens(ward), Greensleeves, greenstick, greenwash, olive-green, pea-green, sea-green; bluegrass, crabgrass, grasscutter, grassed, grasshopper, grassland(s), grassy, ryegrass, seagrass, supergrass; full-grown, BLACK blackamoor, blackball, Blackbeard, blackberry(ing), blackbird, blackboard, Blackburn, blackcurrant, blacken, black-eyed, blackface, blackfly, Blackfoot, blackguard, blackhead, Blackheath, blackjack, blackleg, blacklist, blackly, blackmail(er), blackness, blackout, Blackpool, blackshirt, blacksmith, 51 50 51 blackthorn, blacktop, coal-black, pitch-black WHITE lily-white, non-white, off-white, snow-white, whitebait, whiteboard, white-bread, whitecaps, Whitechapel, white-collar, Whitehall, Whitehorse, white-hot, white-knuckle, whiten, whiteness, white-out, white-van, white-tie, whitewall, whitewash, Whitewater, whitey, whiting, whitish, Whitsun(tide); buckwheat, wheatgerm, Wheaties, wheatish, wheatmeal, wholewheat GREY greybeard, grey-haired, greyhound, greyish, greyness, greyscale, iron-grey, state-grey 52 COLOUR colourant, coloured, (dis)colouration, coloratura, colour-blind(ness), colorfast, colour-coded, colourful(ly), colouring, colourise, colourist(ic), colourless, colourway, discolour, four-colour, full-colour, light-coloured, multicolour(ed), off-colour, rose-coloured, self-colour, technicolour, tricolour, uncoloured, watercolour(ist) » CORNUCOPIA 2 Word ForMATION for more practice on other aspects of word formation (eponyms, back-formations, phrasal and prepositional compounds) INTERNAL CHANGES Quiz Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 The move has caused numerous troubles, which are time- consuming to sort out. (tooth) 2 The security guard gave him a(n) then took a look in his eyes and reconsidered. (one) 3 In the back of my hazed mind, I remembered reading the book a long time ago. (drink) 4 Whatever rhetoric comes from the president next week, the reality is clear-cut. (fly) Paul will be responsible for developing the talents of performers and writers. (fly) 6 A giant bird like the dodo is on the extreme end of avian evolution. (fly) 7 He has staff salaries, and senior managers are back driving new BMWs. (freeze) He has to pay the fees of the court, but for loss of time the law will not him. (damage) The portrait of the men as fun- loving rogues is with their despicable actions. (measure) Americans are free to choose from a(n) values. (mix) array of lifestyles and The story seemed to be a(n) to all the effects and computer-animation. (think) My cat went missing, leaving me trawling the streets in the hope of finding him. (lose) 52 PRACTICE 5 A) Supply the correct form of the word given in brackets. 1 The burglars were caught surrounded by computers that they were intending to steal from a business. (red) Police chiefs were hate-mongers yesterday after their road safety trailer rolled backwards down a hill and smashed into a shop. (red) The cowardly cyber-stalkers and anonymous lurking online, preying on decent folks, can jolly well lump it. (yellow) She was a(n) at the simplest meaning of the word: She had no love for her husband; she married him simply upon his wealth. (gold) Participants presented before subcommittees and held a forum on jobs with national environmental groups. (green) The court distinguished him from a(n) by describing him as a contracted agent of the FBI and as a witness under protection. (grass) 7 Use makeup and clothes to create an image you want to portray but remember as time goes on you may be They are all your old look. (grow) with national security credentials and a history of knowing how the government works. (grow) C

Rugby players used to be thought of as beer swilling, children who engage in raucous after-match parties. (grow) school- 10 This room was used for entertaining on an intimate scale: for meetings with friend, but also served as a public room. (blue) 11 A champion swimmer and boy of his parents, he finds that his world completely changes after he gets the disease. (blue) 12 The municipal judges may have made judgments that superiors to keep their jobs. (brown) 13 their Secretarial or low-level administrative jobs are so overwhelmingly female that they have been termed 14 We are jobs. (pink) into believing the money is needed for education and the elderly, but every year we pay more and receive less. (black) 15 Authorities have arrested high-profile editors, closed publications, and imposed news 16 Writers who 17 18 on politically sensitive events. (black) the facts in order to present their side of a story don't do anyone any good, least of all their own followers. (white) I carefully looked over my shoulder expecting to be greeted with a wide-eyed grimace of sheer terror. (white) Doctors should think more carefully before handing out certificates willy-nilly just because someone looks a bit (colour) 19 Sitting there on Saturday evening, looking around the famous stadium, my mind began to wander back to days of 20 yesteryear. (colour) on the Even in the best circumstances there could be unseen fabric that would make it dye with uneven spots. (colour) 53 PRACTICE 5 B Use the word-part -port- (from portare 'to carry') to form a word that completes each sentence. 1 Although it's ___port_. a comedy - a romantic comedy, even - its most memorable scene is a tense courtroom drama. Currently, most organs are donated by patients on machines who die after suffering irreversible brain damage. port Each team captain voted on the recipient of the fair play award, which went to the team showing the most_port_ 1 Fee increases were particularly difficult for 5 6 7 port and appearance were students, many of whom were low-income and minority students. From a worldly point of view,___port__ constitutive of identity - the self was, in other words, performative. He was a hard-working man who had a good ___ port with people and who got on well with friends and neighbours. In a police interview, he accepted he had delivered the butt and said he knew his actions were ____ port 8 In terms of the world context, this is one of the most 10 11 1.3 moments to announce further cuts to royalties and taxes. port Most of the tips are useful, such as how to maximise networking potential and where to find those ___________ port ______ contacts. News organisations frequently __________ port scientific information and cover science of questionable validity. _ _ tyranny. No sooner does a government attempt to go beyond its political sphere than it exercises, unintentionally, a(n) _____ port. She chooses this job to escape a potential life as a(n) single mother living in poverty and boredom in her small town. port__ 13 Some people were discussing the idea of taking finger prints from __port___ as soon as they arrive on our shores. 14 Students need to see how useful mathematics can be, not how it can be applied to __ _ _ port _ _ _, meaningless things. 15 The movie seems to be universally appealing to such a degree that any derision would make me feel a(n) port. 16 The university's _________port__ has lots of links to sites of interest to students and e-learning projects for them to access. 17 They had money, status and liberal political ideas, and a vulgarity to match their sense of -__ port 18 Today domestic violence makes up a

quarter of all violent crime, although most goes _______ port _ _ —— 19 We will have quantum computers, and, if I understand the principles, a form of ____ port 20 Working with the easily the group to show their and faster than light communication. ____ port ____ medium of video enabled achievement to a wider community. 54 absent-mindedly THE EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF -EDLY ADVERBS markedly misguidedly NOTES • abstractedly admittedly (ill-)advisedly affectedly allegedly nakedly offhandedly perplexedly pointedly animatedly purportedly assuredly raggedly avowedly repeatedly belatedly reportedly bemusedly reputedly blessedly resignedly cold-bloodedly ruggedly conceitedly shamefacedly confusedly short-sightedly (dis)contentedly single-handedly crookedly

single-mindedly cussedly spiritedly decidedly stiltedly dejectedly delightedly supposedly tiredly dementedly (un)deservedly determinedly devotedly disgustedly disinterestedly unabashedly unashamedly unconcernedly undoubtedly unexpectedly unprecedentedly distractedly doggedly unreservedly wholeheartedly exaggeratedly wickedly exasperatedly worriedly excitedly wretchedly fixedly frenziedly good-homo(u)redly good-naturedly guardedly half-heartedly heatedly (un)hurriedly light-heartedly lopsidedly 55 Which words have the -edly endings pronounced as [idli] and which do not? Look them up in the OALD to find out. Recommeded Resources G Oxford Dictionaries Language matters Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary CEFR C1 C2 blogchuyenanh.wordpress.com fb.com/chuyentienganh tienganhchuyen@gmail.com ISBN: 978-604-52-6024-1 9786045 260241 Giá 170,000 VNĐ