Đề Thi (Chính Thức) Môn Tiếng Anh 11 – Duyên Hải Và Đồng Bằng Bắc Bộ năm 2022 có đáp án

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Part 1. For questions 1-5, you will hear a woman talking about caffein. Listen and decide  whether the following sentences are true (T) or false (F). Write your answers in the  corresponding numbered boxes on the answer sheet. (10 points)

l. The desired effect of caffeine is brought about as it facilitates the proper function of  Adenosine receptors in the brain. 

2. People around the world have consumed caffeine-infused products on a daily basis for  centuries. 

3. The popularity of tea in Britain led to it being consumed in China later on.  4. Caffeinated drinks have integrated themselves into the drinking culture in the United States.  5. Pure caffeine poses a serious health risk, resulting even in dealths.

Part 2. For questions 6-10, you will hear a lecture about water. Listen and answer the  questions. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS taken from the recording for each  answer in the corresponding numbered boxes on the answer sheet. (10 points) 6. What are the two features of water that concern people everywhere? 

7. What is the main use of water in our everyday life? 

8. Besides rivers, where can we find the purest water?

9. What hinders people from utilising rainwater in Oceania, besides its increasingly limited amount?

10. What need(s) removing from water before we use it?

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Part 3. For questions 11-15, you will hear two nutritionists, Fay Wells and George Fisher,  discussing methods of food production. Choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best  according to what you hear and write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes on  the answer sheet. (10 points)

11. Looking at reports on the subject of GM foods, Fay feels _______.

A. pleased to read that the problem of food shortages is being addressed

B. surprised that the fears of the public are not allayed by them 

C. frustrated by contradictory conclusions 

D. critical of the scientists' methodology

12. What does George suggest about organic foods? 

A. Consumers remain surprisingly poorly informed about them. 

B. People need to check out the claims made about them. 

C. They need to be made more attractive to meat-eaters. 

D. They may become more widely affordable in frture. 

13. What is George's opinion of 'vertical farming'? 

A. It could provide a realistic alternative to existing methods. 

B. It's a highly impractical scheme dreamt up by architects. 

C. It's unlikely to go much beyond the experimental stage. 

D. It has the potential to reduce consumpyon of energy.

14. George and Fay agree that the use of nanotechnology in food production will _______. A. reduce the need for dietary supplements 

B. simplify the process of food-labelling 

C. complicate things for the consumer

D. introduce potential health risks 

15. In Fay's view, returning to self-suffciency is only an option for people who _______. A. have no need to get a return on their investment

B. are willing to accept a high level of regulation

C. reject the values of a consumer society 

D. already have sufficient set-up funds

Part 4. For questions 16-25, you will listen to a recording of a presenter talking about Machu  Picchu. Complete the summary by writing NO MORE THAN FOUR WORDS and/or A  NUMBER in each gap. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes on the  answer sheet. (20 points)

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16. Machu Picchu, one of the most fascinating archaeological sites on Earth, proves how  __________ the Incas were. 

17. In its heyday, the Inca civilisation stretched __________, comparable to the horizontal width  of the continental America. 

18. Machu Picchu epitomised the Inca's __________.

19. The construction of Machu Picchu was spectacular as it was done without the use of  __________ to bind stones together. 

20. Despite regular __________ in the region, Machu Picchu has remained in remarkable  condition for over five centuries. 

21. Machu Picchu is likely to have played its role as a(n) __________, a military stronghold, or  a ceremonial site.

22. It is impossible to shed light on the real purpose Picchu due to the Inca's lack of  __________.

23. After being abandoned, Machu Picchu remained a mystery to the outside world, including  __________ who mounted an invasion of the Inca civilisation in the 16th century.  24. __________ notwithstanding, Machu Picchu is still among the world's most important  archaeological sites. 

25. 1983 saw Machu Picchu being designated as __________.

B. LEXICO - GRAMMAR (30 points) 

Part 1. For questions 26-55, choose one of the words marked A, B, C, or D which best  completes the following sentences and write your answers in the corresponding numbered  boxes on the answer sheet. (20 points)

26. The new cirriculum has been designed to ________ students' learning by combining theory  with hands-on practice. 

A. alleviate B. exaggerate C. sharpen D. optimize  27. The consultant called in by the firm had a ________ of experience bearing on the problem.  A. wealth B. carton C. bank D. hoard

28. The chairman had a recommendation that ________.

A. each member studied more carefully the problem 

B. the problem was more carefully studied by each member

C. with more carefulness the problem could be studied 

D. each member study the problem more carefully

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29. A career in marketing has always been what she desires, so she just ________ herself in her  work. 

A. immersed B. submerged C. engulfed D. engrossed  30. Rather than ponder the questions, the interviewee ________ out the first answer coming into  his head. 

A. blundered B. blurted C. bungled D. botched  31. She rocked the baby in her arms and watched his little face as he ________ to sleep.  A. drifted off B. burned with C. slipped into D. popped up  32. He was so highly knowledgeable on the areas that many would say he was something of a  ________.

A. veteran B. novice C. probationer D. archivist 33. Many people refused to fall in with the idea that religion is a(n) ________ disputable  anachronism. 

A. academically B. cerebrally C. cognitively D. intellectually  34. A large proportion of the households in this area is ________ to the internet thanks to a generous foreign donor. 

A. linked with B. wired up C. hooked up D. crossed with  35. It was a close ________ but we just made it to the airport on time for our flight.  A. drive B. run C. call D. go 

36. You are not supposed to park on the hard ________ except in an emergency.  A. shoulder B. area C. lane D. head 

37. Round and round ________.

A. went the wheels of the engine B. the wheels of the engine went  C. did the wheels of the engine go D. going the wheels of the engine  38. I was thrilled to meet Paul Mc Cartney in the ________ when I sat next to him at the theatre. A. face B. flesh C. blood D. vein 

39. He preferred to ________ any profits he made back into business. 

A. sow B. plan C. plough D. dig 

40. His new manager, who is always willing to do somebody a good ________, is kind-hearted  and sociable. 

A. go B. turn C. play D. part 

41. It was a hot summer day and ice cream salesmen were doing a ________ trade. A. roaring B. bustling C. flickering D. staggering

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42. The choreographer ______ his fingers in time to the music so that the dancers could pick up  the tempo. 

A. clenched B. snapped C. nudged D. beckoned  43. The football club decided to ________ the team with a couple ofworld-class players.  A. beef up B. chuck out C. match against D. sort out  44. When you join this game, it's important that you should ________.

A. keep your wits about you B. gather your wits 

C. keep your head in the clouds D. go to your head 

45. Regional parliaments allow ________ for remote parts of the country or islands far from the  captital. 

A. self-government B. self-sufficiency C. self-regulation D. self-support

Part 2. For questions 46-55, give the correct form of each given word to complete the  following sentences and write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes on the  answer sheet. (10 points)

46. If a screen does not contain everything needed, further lexicographic information can be  obtained by clicking on a ________. (LINK)

47. The documented differences between men and women in scientific career paths do not  match what would be expected in a true ________. (MERIT) 

48. Few _________ of homeopathy, acupuncture and the like regard therapies as complete  substitutes for modem medicine. (PRACTICE) 

49. You can ask a _________ for advice on what kind of food you should eat to keep you healthy. (DIET) 

50. The new policy only serves to _________ the inadequacy of provision for the homeless.  (ACCENT)

51. It is vital that we _________ this realm if we ever want to get anything done effective in  securing it. (MYSTERY)

52. At the dawn of the Internet, many believed that it would enable a more _________ platform,  particularly with politics. (PARTICIPATE)

53. I must admit that it is time the organizers did away with the _________ computer system  and bought a new one. (ANNUAL)

54. The building looks a bit _________ from the outside but it's quite traditional inside. (FUTURE) 55. Left-handers now dominate the game to an extent that _________ their numbers. (WEIGH)

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C. READING (60 points)

Part 1. For questions 56-65, fill each of the following numbered blanks with ONE suitable  word and write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes on the answer sheet. (15  points)


The accepted concept of a career path followed a similar pattern for decades. After  (56)_______ their education, people would enter the adult world of work, settling down to a job in  which they would likely remain from that point (57) _______. Not only would this occupation  provide their income for their entire working life, it would also allow them a(n) (58) _______ pension when they retired and moved into old age. Over the past twenty years, however, the  relationship between a wage earner and their chosen profession has changed enormously. Today, the  LGHD RI D ³MRE-for-OLIH´ KDV DOO (59) _______ disappeared, to be replaced by an unforgiving world of  unstable employment. Some observers even argue that current society appears to pit old  (60)_______ young in a constant battle to find work of some description, all against a (61) ______ of increasing debt and economic difficulties. 

At the same time, the government regularly (62) ______ figures that suggest that the  economy is prospering, evidencing this claim with the fact that the unemployment rate continues  to fall annually. There are indeed more jobs (63) ______. However, a huge number of these are  casual, temporary or short-term positions, all of which are low-paid and create (64)______ in the  way of tax income for the government. This has a number of debilitating long-term effects, not  (65) ______ because this assurance of a growing economy is based more in myth than fact.

Part 2. For questions 66-75, read the passage below and choose the answer A, B, C, or D that  fit best according to the text. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes provided on the answer sheet. (10 points)


Because I am a novelist myself, I am always faintly fussed by the idea of creative writing  courses. I completely accept that you can teach the craft, that you can give instruction on how to  structure a book, how to vary space and tension, hRZ  WR  ZULWH  GLDORJXH   %XW  ZKDW  \RX  FDQ¶W  teach, it seems to me, is the right kind of interpretation of what has been observed. It worries me  to think of all those earnest pupils who have diligently mastered the mechanics, wondering with

varying degrees of misery and rage ZK\ WKH ILQLVKHG UHFLSH MXVW KDVQ¶W VRPHKRZ ZRUNHG  The great writer Samuel Coleridge explained it. He said that there are two kinds of  imagination, the primary and the secondary. We all, he said, possess the primary imagination,

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we all have the capacity to perceive, to notice. But what only poets (loosely translated as all  truly creative people, I suppose) have - the secondary imagination is the capacity to select, and  then translate and illuminate everything that has been observed so that it seems to the audience  something entirely new, something entirely true, something exciting, wonderful and terrible.

There is, after all, nothing new to say about the human condition. There is nothing to say  that Shakespeare or SophocleV  KDVQ¶W  DOUHDG\   Lnimitably, brilliantly, said. Codes of product,  fashions in morality and ethics, all may come and go. But what the human heart has desired - and feared - down WKH DJHV JRHV RQ EHLQJ YHU\ PXFK WKH VDPH  7KH QRYHOLVW¶V WDVN LV WR IROORZ  the well-trodden, time-worn path of human hopes and terrors. Never forget: betrayal may be  as old as time, it may happen every QDQRVHFRQG RI HYHU\ PLQXWH WKDW¶V HYHU EHHQ  EXW WKH ILUVW  time it happens to you feels like the first time in the history of the world. A cliché is a cliché  only if it is comfortably taking place in someone HOVH¶V OLIe.

7KLV HPSDWK\ LV YLWDO LQ WKH ZULWLQJ RI ILFWLRQ  &ROHULGJH¶V YLHZ RI WKH SRHW DV prophet to  the hungry hordes is, in truth, a bit grand for me. I admire it, but I am not, personally, quite up to  it. I am happier seeing the novelist, sleeves rolled up, in the thick of it alongside the reader,  bleeding when pricked, in just the same way that the reader does. The only capacity I would  claim is that I have an instinct to select, from everythLQJ  ,  KDYH  QRWLFHG  LQ  KDOI  D  FHQWXU\¶V  beady-eyed people-watching, the telling detail, the apt phrase. I seem to be good at the rhythms  of dialogue. I seem to know how not to overwrite. But that is it really. Except that the older I  get, the more prepared I am to surrender and trust to the power of the unconscious mind. Maybe  this is a modest form of the secondary imagination, maybe not. Whatever it is, it produces a  level and intensity of communication that causes people to buy my books and write to me about  WKHP LQ QXPEHUV WKDW , VWLOO FDQ¶W JHW over.

What I do believe, fervently, is that we are all in this boat together ± writer, reader, critic.  I have a tattered little quotation that lies on my desk and becomes more valuable to me as time  goes on. It comes from the autobiography of the celebrated nineteenth-century writer Anthony  Trollope. He said many remarkable things in this book, but my own personal favourite is on the  VXEMHFW  RI  WKH  QRYHOLVW¶V central preoccupation. Trollope is not so much concerned with the  landscape of the grand passions as with something else, something less glamorous perhaps, but  just as intense and certainly more XQLYHUVDO   µ0\  WDVN¶   KH  ZURWH   µLV WR  FKURQLFOH  WKRVH  OLWWOH  daily lacerations XSRQ WKH VSLULW ¶

I feel a thrill of recognition every time I read that, or even think about it. That is what the  ZULWHU¶V OLIH LV all about for me. The point of it is to emphasise that we are none of us immune to

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longing, or disappointment (much under-rated, in my view, as a source for distress), or  frustration, or idiotic hope, or bad behaviour. What fiction does, in this difficult world, is to  reassure us that we are not alone, nor we are (most of us) lost causes. There is a theory that  suffering strengthens and elevates us in a way that jo\ FDQ QHYHU VRPHKRZ GR  ,¶P QRW VR VXUH  abRXW WKDW  ,VQ¶W LW MXVW WKDW ZH KDYH  RQ WKH ZKROH  VR much more suffering than joy that we have  resolved, out of our great surviving instinct, to insist that something worthwhile must be made  of LW" $QG LVQ¶W ILFWion a handrail, of a kind, which we can all grasp while we blunder about in  WKH GDUN"  ,VQ¶W  ILFWLRQ ZULWWHQ E\  SHRSOH  IRU SHRSOH DERXW SHRSOH" $QG LV there a subject more  fascinating or more important?

66. What view does the novelist express about creative writing courses?

A. A few good books emerge from them.

B. It would be inappropriate for her to teach on them.

C. Students are frustrated by the poor teaching on them.

D. Some aspects of writing skills can be successfully taught on them.


A. an instinct for the unusual

B. a gift for meticulous observation

C. the ability to put a fresh interpretation on the everyday world

D. the ability to highlight sensational aspects of our existence

68. What is stated about writers in the third paragraph?


B. They should revisit well-established themes.

C. They should be prepared to exaggerate their personal experience.

D. They should not try to keep pace with changes in literary tastes.

69  7KH SKUDVH µthe well-trodden, time-worn path¶ UHIHUV WR WKHPHV RI ZULWLQJ WKDW are ______. A. familiar and long-standing B. extraordinary and profound

C. up-to-date and catchy D. simple and soulful



A. conservative B. receptive C. impartial D. emotional 71. The novelist states that one of her own strengths as a writer lies in ________. A. her depiction of character B. her construction of plot

C. her command of language D. her knowledge of psychology

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72. Why does novelist admire Anthony Trollope?

A. He portrays the fact that everyone suffers in some way.

B. He realises that all writers need a strong sense of place.

C. He understands that everyone craves deep emotion.

D. He is aware that all writers have a particular obsession.


A. exhilarating B. epoch-making C. pathetic D. trivial 74. The novelist describHV ILFWLRQ DV µa handrail, of a kind¶ because it ______. A. reflects the negative aspects of emotion B. enables us to deal with failure C. helps us make sense of complex events D. offers reassurance in an uncertain world 75. Which theme recurs in this text?

A. The need for novelists to avoid complex philosophical questions

B. The need for novelists to develop their writing techniques

C. The need for novelists to give an accurate reflection of the spirit of the time '  7KH QHHG IRU QRYHOLVWV WR LGHQWLI\ FORVHO\ ZLWK UHDGHUV¶ preoccupations

Part 3. For questions 76-88, read the following passage and do the tasks that follow. (13  points)


The practice of homeopathy was first developed by the German physician Samuel  Hahnemann. During research in the 17903, Hahnemann began experimenting with quinine, an alkaloid derived from cinchona bark that was well known at the time to have a positive effect on fever. Hahnemann started dosing himself with quinine while in a state of good health, and reported in his journals that his extremiWLHV ZHQW FROG  KH H[SHULHQFHG SDOSLWDWLRQV  DQ ³LQILQLWH DQ[LHW\´   D WUHPEOLQJ  DQd weakening of the limbs, reddening cheeks and thirst-³ LQ  VKRUW´   KH FRQFOXGHG   ³DOO  WKH  V\PSWRPV  RI UHODSVLQJ  IHYHU  SUHVHQWHG  WKHPVHOYHV  VXFFHVVLYHO\«´ HDKQHPDQQ¶V PDLQ REVervation was that things which create problems for healthy people cure 

those problems in sick people, and this became his first principle of homeopathy: simila  similibus (with help from the same). While diverging from the principle of apothecary practice  µat the time ± which was contraria contrariis (with help from the opposite) ± the efficacy of  simila similibus was reaffirmed by subsequent developments in the field of vaccinations.

+DKQHPDQQ¶V  VHFRQG  SULQFLSOH  ZDV  PLQLPDO  GRVLQJ-treatments should be taken in the  most diluted form at which they remain effective. This negated any possible toxic effects of  simila similibus.

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In 1988 the French immunologist Jacques Benveniste took minimal dosing to new  extremes when he published a paper in the prestigious scientific journal Nature in which he  suggested that very high dilutions of the anti~1gE antibody could affect human basophil  granulocytes, the least common of the granulocytes that make up about 0.01% to 0.3% of white  blood cells. The point of controversy, hRZHYHU  ZDV WKDW WKH ZDWHU LQ %HQYHQLVWH¶V WHVW KDG EHHQ  so diluted that any molecular evidence of the antibodies no longer existed. Water molecules, the  researcher concluded, had a biologically active component that a journalist later tHUPHG ³ZDWHU  memory´   $  QXPEHU  RI  HIIRUWV  IURP  VFLHQWLVWV  LQ  %ULWDLQ   )UDQFH  DQG  WKH  1HWKHUODQGV  WR  duSOLFDWH %HQYHQLVWH¶V  UHVHDUFK ZHUH XQVXFFHVVIXO  KRZHYHU  DQG WR WKLV GD\  QR SHHU-reviewed  study under broadly accepted conditions has been able to confirP  WKH  YDOLGLW\  RI  ³water  PHPRU\´ 

7KH  WKLUG  SULQFLSOH  RI  KRPHRSDWK\  LV  ³WKH  VLQJOH  UHPHG\´   ([SRQHQWV of this principle  believe that it would be too difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain the potential effects of  multiple homeopathic remedies delivered simultaneously. If it did work, they suggest, one could  not know quite why it worked, turning homeopathy into an ambiguous guessing game. If it did  not work, neither patient nor practitioner would know whether the ingredients were all  ineffective, or whether they were only ineffective in combination with one another. Combination  remedies are gaining in popularity, but classical homeopaths who rely on the single remedy  approach warn these are not more potent, nor do they provide more treatment options. The availability of combination remedies, these homeopaths suggest, has been led by consumers  wanting more options, not from homeopathic research indicating their efficacy.

Homeopathy is an extremely contentious form of medicine, with strong assertions  coming from both critics DQG VXSSRUWHUV RI WKH SUDFWLFH  ³ +RPHRSDWK\  7KHUH¶V QRWKLQJ LQ LW ´  announces the tagline to 10:23, a major British anti-homeopathy campaign. At 10.23 am. on 30  January 2010, over 400 supporters of the 10:23 stood outside Boots pharmacies and swallowed  an entire bottle each of homeopathic pills in an attempt to raise awareness about the fact that  these remedies are made of sugar and water, with no active components. This, defenders of  homeopathy say, is entirely the point. Homeopathic products do not rely on ingredients that  EHFRPH  WR[LF  DW  KLJK  GRVHV   EHFDXVH  WKH  ZDWHU  UHWDLQV  WKH  ³PHPRU\´  WKDW  DOORZV  WKH  RULJLQDO  treatment to function.

Critics also point out the fact that homeopathic preparations have no systematic design to  them, making it hard to monitor whether or not a particular treatment has been efficacious.  Homeopaths embrace this uncertainty. While results may be less certain, they argue, the non-

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toxic nature of homeopathy means that practitioner and patient can experiment until they find  something that works without concern for side effects. Traditional medicine, they argue, assaults  the body with a cocktail of drugs that only tackles the symptoms of disease, while homeopathy  has its sights aimed on the causes. Homeopaths suggest this approach leads to kinder, gentler,  more effective treatment.

Finally, critics allege that when homeopathy has produced good results, these are  exceedingly dependent on the placebo effect, and cannot justify the resources, time and expense  that the homeopathic tradition absorbs. The placebo effect is a term that describes beneficial  outcomes from D WUHDWPHQW WKDQ  FDQ  EH  DWWULEXWHG WR WKH  SDWLHQW¶V  H[SHFWDWLRQV  FRQFHUQLQJ WKH  WUHDWPHQW  UDWKHU  WKDQ  IURP  WKH  WUHDWPHQW  LWVHOI   %DVLFDOO\   WKH  SDWLHQW  ³tKLQNV´  KLPVHOI  LQWR

feeling better. Defenders suggest that homeopathy can go beyond this psychological level. They  point to the successful results of homeopathy on patients who are unconscious at the time of  treatment, as well as on animals.

For questions 76-82, decide whether the following statements are True (T), False (F) or Not  Given (NG). Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes provided on the  answer sheet.

76. Samuel Hahnemannn developed his principles based on an existent set of rules at his time.  77. The existence of a biologically active part in water has yet to be conclusively proven.  78. The Single remedy serves to preclude the unforeseeable outcomes of remedial combinations.  79. It has been suggested that the practice of applying several treatments at the same time  becomes more common due to endorsements by scientists. 

80. The uncertainty of preparations for homeopathy is perceived by both supporters and  opponents of it. 

81. Patients' feelings are affected by the outcomes ofthe treatments they receive.  82. Abortive attempts of homeopathic treatment are used to corroborate its opponents'  arguments.

For questions 83-88, write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS taken front the passage to  complete the following paragraph. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes  provided on the answer sheet.

There are three principles behind the practice of homeopathy. The first one, simila similibus, was developed by Samuel Hahnemann after experimentation in which he observed  that problem-inducing factors could become treatments for suffering people. While marking a  departure from that of (83) ______________, this principle of homeopathy was substantiated by

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further advancements. The second principle, minimal dosing, serves to avert (84)____________ that can be caused by simila similibus. The attempt for its furtherance was made by Jacques  Benveniste, but controversy was sparked as there was a lack of (85) ______________ in the  used water. Moreover, a result from his experiment termed "water memory" had received (86)______________ to the moment of writing. The third principle named 'fie single remedy"  works on the ground that application of multiple treatments at the same time can make 

homeopathy become a(n) (87) ______________ even when the results are desirable. Homeopathy is a controversial remedy. While there are arguments in favour of it, critics  have suggested weaknesses in the treatment including its components, lack of systemic design  and the reliance on (88) ______________ of its feasible positive effects.

Part 4: In the passage below, seven paragraphs have been removed. Read the passage and  choose from paragraphs A-H the one which fits each gap. There is ONE extra pragraph  which you do not need to use. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes  provided on the answer sheet. (7 points) 


Brooks Hubbert clutches the neck of a prickly, circular instrument that somewhat resembles an  upside-down jellyfish, its tendrils represented by stiff bronze rods of various lengths.







This is a waterphone, and its distinctive music is felt as much as heard - in the hair at the back of  WKH QHFN  LQ WKH JXW  ,W¶V WKH VRXQG RI D OXUFKLQJ HOHYDWor or a renegade fairground ride about to  spin off its axis.







Invented and patented in 1969, the waterphone has captivated, confused, and generally creeped  out audiences via film scores, orchestral works, and more than one experimental San Francisco  concert over the past 45 years. 







+XEEHUW  LV  QRZ  FDUU\LQJ  RQ :DWHUV¶  OHJDF\   Euilding waterphones in his backyard workshop  using the same painstaking process Waters devised. Each waterphone starts with a stainless steel  pan, shaped like two pie tins welded at the brim, which acts as a resonator. Out of this base juts  a series of bronze tonal rods and a long, thick neck with an opening at the top, where the water is  poured in. Fill the pan with water, and the rods vibrate and trill with woozy harmonies when  tapped with a mallet or stroked with a bow.

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-XVW  GRQ¶W  WXUQ  LW  XSVLGH  GRwn, or the water will fall out. It fits into so many different  applications because it has such a wide range of tones. There are all kinds of playing techniques  that have yet to even be discovered.







:DWHUV¶ SDWK WR LQYHQWLRQ EHJDQ LQ JUDG VFKRol in the mid-1960s at OaklaQG¶V &DOLIRUQLD &ROOHJH  of Arts and Crafts, where he first played an instrument he described as a Tibetan water drum - a  round bronze tub, filled with water, that rocked when struck. Later, dabbling in the local hippie  scene, he heard the music of a kalimba in a Haight-Ashbury parade.







Waters and Charlton, both drawn to experimental music, formed the Gravity Adjusters  ([SDQVLRQ %DQG LQ      DQG EHJDQ VKRZFDVLQJ :DWHUV¶ VRQLF LQYHQWLRQV DURXQG the Bay Area.  Other percussionists took notice. When drummer Shelly Manne flew up from Los Angeles and  asked to buy a waterphone, Charlton knew his bandmate was onto something big. Waters soon  drove a vanload of his instruments to L.A., and sold them all in one week.







Think of those skin-bristling scenes where a protagonist wanders into a dark house alone - the  audio accompaniment is often a waterphone, which Hubbert discovered while browsing music  news on the Web in the late 1990s.

The Paragraphs 

A. Waters began welding his own homemade instruments out oftin cans, salad bowls, and hubcaps. He eventually showed one to his friend, jazz drummer Lee Charlton. At Charlton's  studio, the pair poured some water into the base, and the first waterphone was born.  B. Even as synthesizers rose to ubiquity and electronic samples could be coaxed from  computers with a few deft keystrokes, Waters' acoustic invention never lost its appeal. In  times of peak demand, customers lined up for a spot on a yearlong waiting list, eager to shell  out up to $1,700 for one of his handmade creations. 

C. The instrument's melody is often compared to that ofthe humpback whale - so much so  that conservation groups have used the apparatus to summon cetaceans. The waterphone is  classified as a percussion instrument, but it has a greater range than any of its comrades in  that category. There is no part of the gadget that doesn't make music - one can strike the  rods, hit or rub the underside of the base, or finger-drum on the neck.

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D. A few years later, Hubbert was playing a gig at a local yacht club, and Waters, not  recognizing him, came up to praise the show. Hubbert took off his sunglasses and  reintroduced himself; they had a fond reunion. Waters started attending Hubbert's gigs, and  Hubbert would stop by Waters' home studio to chat about the waterphone craft. 

E. That idea might have pleased Waters, a trained painter, kinetic sculptor, bamboo  enthusiast, and lifelong creator who would often walk into a room and begin drumming on  any interesting wood or brass objects he saw, according to his daughter, Rayme Waters. F. It might call to mind the soundtracks of 1980s-era horror and ghost movies, and with  good reason. The instrument's low, haunting moans and eerie, high-pitched squeals - like  screeching brakes - have become known as the sound of suspense in films like Poltergeist, The Matrix, Star Trek - The Motion Picture, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, and Let the Right One In. 

G. Shortly aner that, Hollywood came knocking. An acquaintance of Waters' Who worked  as a sound-effects artist told him the water-phone had potential, and before long, composers  began incorporating the instrument into film and TV scores. Thrillers were a natural fit.  H. He drags a bow across a few of them, producing a piercing, metallic shriek. Satisfied  with this, he tilts the instrument to one side, and this is where the sound goes wonky as tones  bend upward, dip down, and shift sideways because the six ounces of water in the device's  base echo and resonate.

Part 5: For questions 96-105, you are going to read an article about an art exhibition that  focuses on the subject of whether paintings are authentic or fake. Answer the questions by  choosing from the sections of the article (A - F). The sections may be chosen more than once, 

Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes provided on the answer sheet. (15  points) 

A. Close Examination at the National Gallery looks at 40 problematic works from the Gallery's collection - including outright forgeries, misattributions, and copies, altered or over restored paintings, and works whose authenticity has wrongly been doubted. The curators have  taken on a huge subject - the range of possibilities museum professionals take into consideration  when they investigate a picture's status and the variety of technical procedures conservation  scientists use to establish authorship and date. The case histories they discuss have a single common denominator. Whatever conclusion the combined disciplines of connoisseurship,  science and art history may lead, the study of any work of art begins with a question: is the work  by the artist to whom it is attributed?

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B. A good example is a painting that the National Gallery acquired in 1923, as the work of  an artist in the circle of the Italian 15th century painter Melozzo da Forlì. Today, we find it  incredible that anyone was ever fooled by a picture that looks like it was painted by a Surrealist  follower of Salvador Dali. But this is to forget how little was known about Melozzo, and how  little could be done in the conservation lab to determine the date of pigments or wood panel.

Even so, from the moment the picture was acquired, sceptics called its status into question.  Nothing could be proved until 1960 when an art historian pointed out the anachronisms. When technological advances enabled the gallery to test the pigments, they were found to be from the  19th century.

C. Scientific evidence can be invaluable but it has to be used with caution and in tandem with historical research. For example, Corot's ravishing sketch The Roman Campagna, with the  Claudian Aqueduct has always been dated to about 1826, soon after the artist's arrival in Rome.

However, the green pigment that Corot used throughout the picture only became available to artists in the 1830s. The landscape wasn't a fake and for stylistic reasons couldn't  have been painted later than the 1820s. All became clear when historians did more research and discovered that the firm that sold artists' supplies to Corot in Paris started making the newly  developed colour available to selected customers in the mid-1820s, long before it came into  widespread use.

D. The flipside of a fake, but capable of doing equal violence to an artist's reputation, occurs  when an authentic work is mistakenly labelled a forgery. I well remember how distressing it was  to read an article in which the former director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas Hoving, declared that Uccello's lovely little canvas of St. George and the Dragon was forged. The gallery therefore X-rayed the picture and tested paint samples, before concluding that it was  a rare survival of a work by Uccello dating from the early 1470s. Hoving was irresponsible not because he questioned the attribution of a much-loved work, but because he went public without  first asking the gallery to carry out a thorough scientific analysis.

E. Anyone can label a picture a fake or a copy, but their opinions are worthless unless they  can support them with tangible proof. One picture that's been smeared in this way is Raphael's  Madonna of the Pinks. In this exhibition we are shown infrared photographs that reveal the presence both of major corrections which a copyist would not need to make, and also of under  drawing in a hand comparable to Raphael's when he sketched on paper. The pigments and paper  technique exactly match those that the artist used in other works.

F. The show also has an unspoken agenda. It is a reply to the mistaken belief that museums

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have anything to gain by hiding the true status of the art they own. As the downgrading in this  show of Courbet's Self-Portrait to the status of a posthumous copy of a picture in the Louvre  shows, the opposite is the case: museums and galleries constantly question, reattribute and re date the works in their care. If they make a mistake, they acknowledge it.

In which section of the article are the following mentioned?

96. the different categories of people involved in examining pictures 

97. an incorrect idea about the attitude of people responsible for exhibiting paintings  98. similarities in an artist's style in more than one place 

99. investigative work that showed that a picture was an unusual example of an artist's work  100. information that solved a mystery about a painting known to be authentic  101. reasons why it is understandable that a certain mistake was made 

102. the willingness of experts to accept that their beliefs are wrong 

103. the ftndamental issue surrounding research into a picture 

104. evidence from an expert outside the world of art 

105. an accusation that upset the writer personally 

D. WRITING (60 points)

Part 1. Read the following ex-tract and use your own words to summarize it. Your summary  should be about 140 words. You MUST NOT copy the original. (15 points)  According to a report by Asiaweek, on-the-job injuries are no longer confined strictly to  blue-collar workers. The modern-day office has become a danger zone and computers are  largely to be blamed. Their increased use points to an increase in sick leave and doctors' visits.  The new group of patients includes writers, secretaries and data-entry clerks. Anyone who  spends hours at a keyboard can be at risk.

The most frequent complaints are wrist, hand and neck pain. These are typical signs of  repetitive strain injuries. Another related condition is called carpal tunnel syndrome caused by  pressure on the median nerve in the wrist. It results from repeated movements such as typing or  using the mouse over a long period of time. Before computers came along, typists would stop to  make corrections or change paper. These movements provided some relief. Now, typists rarely  move from their computer, hitting as much as 21,600 words an hour. In severe cases, the pain  shoots up a victim's arm. Some also develop neck and shoulder problems from holding their  head in uncomfortable positions.

Computer users may also complain of eye strain, headaches, double vision and other eye  problems caused by improper use of display screens. It may be a result of staring at the screen  for too long. It could also be due to improper lighting and screen glare.

The best way to cope with such problems is to adopt healthier work habits. This means  that the workers have to hold their wrists flat when they use the keyboard. They should also tap  on the keys softly and take frequent breaks. Their feet should also be flat on the floor and their  heads and backs straight. Some may be required to change their typing technique. In severe

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cases, taking a rest and some anti-inflammatory medication may be necessary. There are also ergonomic hardware and software that blends well with a person's body or  actions. Some examples of such ergonomic hardware are tilting display screens, detachable  keyboards and specially designed keyboards that are suitable for the wrists. Employers and managers should help employees create a comfortable working  environment to reduce the side effects of working on the computer.

Part 2. The bar chart below gives information about the percentage of the population living in  urban areas in different parts of the world. 

Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make  comparisons where relevant. (15 points)

Changes in percentage of population in urban areas


Part 3. Essay writing. (30 points)

Some people say that citizens should be given freedom to express their personal opinions and  concerns about the social problems on the Internet. To what extent do you agree or disagree?  Give reasons and relevant examples to support your answer. You should write at least 350  words.