16 Practice Tests for the gifted students with key Compiler: Ngo Minh (158 pages)

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Practice Tests for the  

Compiler: Ngo Minh  

gifted 

Chau 


PRACTICE TEST 1 

I. LISTENING 

Part 1: You will hear a radio report about Ocean Biodiversity. Complete the sentences, using NO  MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. 

Ocean Biodiversity 

Biodiversity hotpots 

areas containing many different species 

important for locating targets for (1)  

at first only identified on land 

Boris Worm, 2005 

identified hotspots for large ocean predators, e.g. sharks 

found that ocean hotspots: 

- were not always rich in (2)  

- had higher temperatures at the (3)  

- had sufficient (4) in the water 

Lisa Balance, 2007 

looked for hotspots for marine (5)  

found these were all located where ocean currents meet 

Census of Marine Life 

found new ocean species living: 

- under the (6)  

- near volcanoes on the ocean floor 

Global Marine Species Assessment 

Want to list endangered ocean species, considering: 

- population size 

- geographical distribution 

- rate of (7)  

Aim: to assess 20,000 species and make a distribution (8) for each one 

Recommendations to retain ocean biodiversity 

increase the number of ocean reserves 

establish (9) corridors (e.g. for turtles) reduce fishing quotas 

catch fish only for the purpose of (10)  

Part 2: Listen to the information about London Heathrow Airport. Write NO MORE THAN  THREE WORDS for each answer. 

1. Which terminal takes British Airways flights to Philadelphia? 

2. How long does it take to travel by coach between terminals? 

3. Where do you go if you do not have a boarding pass for a connecting flight? 4. How many passengers can a taxi carry?

5. How long is the journey on the underground? 

Part 3: You are going to listen to a conversation. As you listen, indicate whether the following  statements are true or not by writing. 

T for a statement which is true; F for a statement which is false; N if the information is not given. 

1. Napoleon controlled all of Europe at one time 

2. Austria and Russia fought fiercely against Napoleon, but England did not. 

3. Napoleon lost most of his soldiers when he attacked England. 

4. Napoleon died before he reached the age of fifty-two. 

5. He was married when he was very young. 

Part 4: You will hear a radio discussion about writing a novel. For questions 1-5, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you hear. 

1. What does Louise say about Earnest Hemingway‘s advice to writers? 

A. It‘s useful to a certain extent. B. It applies only to inexperienced novelists. C. It wasn‘t intended to be taken seriously. D. It might confuse some inexperienced novelists. 2. Louise says that you need to get feedback when you

A. have not been able to write anything for some time 

B. are having difficulty organizing your ideas 

C. are having contrasting feelings about what you have written 

D. have finished the book but not shown to anyone 

3. Louise says that you should get feedback from another writer because _ . A. it is easy to ignore criticism from people who are not writers 

B. another writer may be kinder to you than friends and relatives 

C. it is hard to find other people who will make an effort to help you 

D. another writer will understand what your intentions are 

4. What does Louise regard as useful feedback? 

A. a combination of general observations and detailed comments 

B. both identification of problems and suggested solutions 

C. comments focusing more on style than on content 

D. as many points about strengths as weaknesses 

5. What does Louise say about the people she gets feedback from? 

A. Some of them are more successful than her. B. She doesn‘t only discuss writing them. C. She also gives them feedback on their work. 

D. It isn‘t always easy for her to get together with them. 

II. LEXICO - GRAMMAR 

Part 1: Choose the word or phrase (A, B, C or D) which best completes each sentence. 1. I was to believe that she was a representative of the Labour Party. 

A. declared B. carried C. led D. explained 2. It has been kept for about ten years that the minister‘s son committed a crime. A. unaware B. secret C. mystery D. obscure 3. One could see with the eye that there was a lighthouse on the promontory. A. naked B. sole C. nude D. shut 

4. These two items don‘t differ much. The is even more apparent when you put them  together.

A. similarity B. likelihood C. coincidence D. analogy 5. Your rude behavior was an to the host and his wife. I don‘t think they will ever invite us to their home again. 

A. abuse B. insult C. injury D. aversion 6. For almost fifty years, the citizens of this country were from travelling abroad unless they were politicians. 

A. suspended B. rejected C. averted D. forbidden 7. I wouldn‘t their position in the market. They may appear to be very influential one day in  the future. 

A. undertake B. underestimate C. underwrite D. undercharge 8. We can‘t admit a person who hasn‘t the required number of points at the entrance  examination. 

A. scored B. assessed C. settled D. qualified 9. he delivers the report, it will be sent to the headquarters. 

A. On the point B. At once C. Immediately D. Soon enough 10. The most probable for your chronic headache is lack of good rest. A. factor B. background C. origin D. reason 

11. This cheese isn‘t fit for eating. It‘s all over after lying in the bin for so long. A. rusty B. mouldy C. spoiled D. sour 12. I cannot think of the correct answer. Could you drop me a small please? A. tip B. idea C. hint D. word 13. It was time we went home after having spent the whole afternoon in the neighbor‘s  garden. 

A. only B. just C. near D. about 14. Why not ask the tailor to shorten the jacket a little unless you don‘t want it to perfectly with the trousers? 

A. go B. do C. make D. suit 15. Studs was only the boy‘s . His real name was William. 

A. label B. nickname C. identity D. figure 16. It‘s interesting how the rumour about my promotion began to

A. progress B. spread C. publicize D. emit 17. What we saw was absolutely unusual. Crowds of people from all four of the world were cheering the arrival of the astronauts. 

A. corners B. edges C. spots D. places 18. Mr. Henson‘s bitter comments on the management‘s mistakes gave to the conflict which has already lasted for four months. 

A. cause B. ground C. goal D. rise 19. Numerous have prevented us from going to the lakeside again this year. A. inhibitions B. deterrents C. impairments D. adversities 20. That tall fair woman me of my mother. 

A. reminds B. remembers C. reminisces D. recalls 

Part 2: Complete the following sentences with the words given in the brackets. You have to  change the form of the word. 

Obsessed with your inbox 

It was not so long ago that we dealt with colleagues through face-to-face (0) interation  (Interact) and with counterparts and customers by phone or letter. But the world of communication

has (1) undergone (go) a dramatic transformation, not all for the good. Email, while (2)  undoubtedly (doubt) a swift means of communication providing your server is fully (3)  functional (function) and that the address you have contains no (4)   inaccuracies (accurate) has had a (5) significant  (signify) effect on certain people‘s behavior, both at home and in business. For these people, the use of email has become (6) irresistibly (resist) addictive to the extent that it is (7) threatening  

 (threat) their mental and physical health. Addicts spend their day (8)  compulsively (compulsion) checking for the email and have a (9)  tendency (tend) to panic if their server goes down. It is estimated that one in six people spend four hours a day sending and receiving messages the equivalent to more than two working days a week. The negative effect on (10) production (produce) is something employers are well aware of. 

Part 3: Identify 10 errors in the following passage and correct them. 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

Unlike many other species of turtle, the red-car terrapin is not rare. In fact, four to five million hatchings are exported annually from American farms. About 200,000 are sold in the United Kingdom. 

It is ranked that as many as 90 per cent of the young terrapins die in their first year because of the poor conditions in which they are kept. Those which survive may live for 20 years and arrive the size of a dinner plate. At this staging they require a large tank with heat and specialized lightning. 

Terrapins carry salmonella bacteria which can poison people. This is why the sale of terrapins was banished in the United States in 1975. They are still, 

however, exported to the United Kingdom. 

Modern turtles come from a very antique group of animals that lived over 

200 million years ago. At this time dinosaurs were just beginning to establish them. 

Different types of turtles have interesting features: some box turtles are known to have lived for over 100 years, since other species of turtles can remain underwater for more than 24 hours. And the green turtle is the most prolific of all reptiles, lying as many as 28,000 eggs each year. 

If unwanted pet turtles are unreleased into the wild, many will die and those which survive will threaten the lives of native plants and animal.



Part 4: Complete each of the following sentences with a suitable preposition or particle. 1. I‘m extremely pressed for.............money these days. Could you lend me a few pounds, please? 2. It‘s a great pity that those beautiful birds are vulnerable…to..........so much harm. 3. Tom hasn‘t attended classes for about two months and consequently he is rather..................done with his lesson? 

4. Must you always be so envious of.............your cousin‘s toys? 

5. Adam felt really sick at heart after his girlfriend had walked out.................on him.

6. It‘s ……worth……. any hope that the Italian champion will retain the title. Nobody‘s giving her  any chances this year. 

7. It was me who Cindy used to take by..............her confidence. Yet, on this particular occasion she refused to reveal her secret to anyone, even me. 

8. It isn‘t so much fatigue as lack of commitment ………in…. finishing the task that makes you so  inoperative. 

9. Michael showed his disgust…towards.the way he was treated by refusing to speak to anyone. 10. I know Pete‘s conduct was intolerable, but don‘t be too hard…on.........him 

III. READING 

Part 1: Complete the following article, using only ONE word for each space. (10 pts) The Legend of the Root 

Ginseng is one of the great mysteries of the east. Often referred to as the elixir of life, its widespread use in oriental medicine has led to many myths and legends building up around this remarkable plant. Ginseng has featured (1) as an active ingredient in oriental medical literature for over 5,000 years. Its beneficial effects were, at one time, (2) 

 so widely recognized and praised that the root was said to (3) its  worth its weight in gold. 

(4) despite the long history of ginseng, no one fully knows how it works. The active part of the plant is the root. Its full name is Panax Ginseng – the word Panax, (5) like  the word panacea, coming from the Greece for all healing. There is growing interest by western scientists (6) in the study of ginseng. It is today believed that this remarkable plant may (7) have beneficial effects in the treatment of many diseases (8)  thatare difficult to treat with synthetic drugs. 

Today, ginseng is no longer a myth or a legend. Throughout the world it is becoming widely recognized that this ancient herb holds the answer to relieving the stresses and ailments of modern living. It is widely used for the treatment of various ailments (9) such as arthritis, diabetes, insomnia, hepatitis and anaemia. However, the truth behind (10) how _ ginseng works still remains a mystery. Yet its widespread effectiveness shows that the remarkable properties are more than just a legend. 

Part 2: Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fit each gap. Secretaries 

What‘s in a name? In the case of the secretary, or Personal Assistant (PA), it can be something rather surprising. The dictionary calls a secretary anyone who (1) correspondence, keeps records and does clerical work for others‖. But while this particular job definition looks a bit (2) 

 , the word‘s original meaning is a hundred times more exotic and perhaps more appropriate. The word itself has been with us since the 14th century and comes from the mediaeval Latin word secretarius meaning something hidden‖. Secretaries started out as those members of staff with 

knowledge hidden from others, the silent ones mysteriously (3)  organizations. Some years ago something hidden‖ probably meant (4) _ 

the secret machinery of  out of sight, tucked 

away with all the other secretaries and typists. A good secretary was an unremarkable one,  efficiently (5) orders, and then returning mouse-like to his or her station behind the typewriter, but, with the (6) of new technology, the job effectively upgraded itself and the role has changed to one closer to the original meaning. The skills required are more demanding and more technical. Companies are (7) that secretarial staff should already be (8) trained

in, and accustomed to working with, a (9) of word processing packages. The professionals in

the (10) business point out that nowadays secretarial staff may even need some management skills to take on administration, personnel work and research. 

1. A. deals B. handles C. runs D. controls 2. A. elderly B. unfashionable C. outdated D. aged 3. A. operating B. pushing C. functioning D. effecting 4. A. kept B. covered C. packed D. held 5. A. satisfying B. obeying C. completing D. minding 6. A. advent B. approach C. entrance D. opening 7. A. insisting B. ordering C. claiming D. pressing 8. A. considerably B. highly C. vastly D. supremely 9. A. group B. collection C. cluster D. range 10. A. appointment B. hiring C. recruitment D. engagement 

Part 3: Choose the correct answer. 

Space pilots, vertical farmers and body part makers are just some of the jobs the next generation could be doing in 20 years‘ time. 

This is what expert future researchers came up with in a study on ‗The shape of jobs to come‘ – which analysed future trends such as population growth and climate change alongside developments in science and technology to create a list of potential jobs under the ongoing digital revolution that will prompt a need for virtual lawyers, virtual clutter organisers, waste data handlers and personal branders. 

The foresight study by UK-based Fast Future, a global futures research and consulting firm, paints an interesting picture of the jobs we could be doing by 2030: 

Safeguarding the environment will be more prominent than ever, with climate change reversal specialists, vertical farmers and weather modification police all attempting to deal with the impact of climate change and population growth; 

Old age wellness managers, memory augmentation surgeons and body part makers will be needed to cope with an ageing society, enhancing the quality of life for a population where life expectations could reach over 100; and 

Breakthroughs in space travel will lead to people swapping the office for the final frontier as space pilots, space architects and space tour guides. 

Of the top 20 future jobs highlighted, a global survey of future thinkers revealed: The British are keen to ‗boldly go‘ – with space jobs the most aspirational, alongside nano medics and memory augmentation surgeons; 

Cars, crops and older people could be the focus for many in tomorrow‘s workforce, with old age wellness managers, vertical farmers and alternative vehicle developers creating the most jobs; For those looking to make the big bucks, nano-medicine, memory augmentation surgery and virtual law are the areas you should be telling your kids about, with the Fast Future panel predicting that these will be the best paid jobs in 2030; 

Future jobs that benefit society will be the most popular, with climate change reversal specialist, social ‗networking‘ worker and old age wellness manager topping the poll in the popularity stakes; and 

Work won‘t all be ‗fun‘ in the future, with the least exciting jobs being weather modification police to protect us from cloud theft, quarantine enforcers preventing the spread of diseases and waste data handlers who will dispose of our electronic mess.

The list of future jobs highlights the vast array of exciting things today‘s schoolchildren could be doing in 20 years‘ time, all made possible by fields of science and innovation in which Britain has real expertise,‖ said Fast Future chief executive officer Rohit Talwar, who conducted the study. 

We‘re crossing the boundaries between science fiction and reality, and what we‘re seeing in the movies are becoming genuine career opportunities. Alongside futuristic sounding high-tech jobs at the cutting edge of scientific fields – like nano-medicine, the jobs of the future also include very 

‗high touch‘ occupations, such as old age wellness managers, narrowcasters and personal branders.‖ 

1. It can be inferred from the text that expert future researchers

A. create potential jobs B. study future jobs 

C. reverse future trends D. analyse waste data 

2. According to Fast Future, the next generation could be doing all of the following jobs except  

A. space plots B. virtual farmers C. virtual lawyers D. nano-medics 3. The word impactis closest in meaning to . 

A. size B. affection C. affluence D. effect 4. It can be inferred from the text that all of the following is true except . A. We will have to deal with an ageing society because human beings will live longer in 20 years‘  time. 

B. Environmental pollution will be less of a problem for us in 20 years‘ time. C. Human beings will be able to travel with ease in space thanks to breakthrough scientific and  technological advancements. 

D. We will stop producing science fiction movies because all what we see in them will have come  true. 

5. The word swappingis closest in meaning to _

A. relocating B. selling C. renovating D. leasing 6. According to the text, which of the following jobs will be paid? 

A. vertical farmers B. old age wellness managers C. nano-medics D. space architects 

7. The word aspirationalis closest in meaning to . 

A. exciting B. influential C. rewarding D. useful 8. According to the text, which of the following jobs will be the least popular? A. climate change reversal specialists B. alternative vehicle developers C. waste data handlers D. personal branders 

9. According to the text, weather modification police

A. stop epidemic spread B. fight harmful clouds 

C. reverse climate change D. arrest cloud bandits 

10. What is the best title for the text? 

A. The best paid jobs in 2030 B. Breakthrough in research and technology in 2030 C. Trends related to job hunting in 2030 D. Career opportunities in 2030 

Part 4: Read the following passage and answer questions 1-10. 

SO YOU WANT TO BE AN ACTOR?

A. 

risky job

If you tell someone that you want to make a career as an actor, you can be sure that within two minutes the word riskywill come up. And, of course, acting is a very risky career – let there be more mistakes about that. The supply of actors is far greater




than the demand for them.



Practice Tests for the Compiler: Ngo Minh  

gifted 

B. 

Chau 

Once you choose to become an actor, many people who you thought were your closest friends will tell you You‘re crazy, though some may react quite differently. No two  people will give you the same advice. But it is a very personal choice you are making.

C. 

The  

road to  

success

There are no easy ways of getting there – no written examinations to pass, and no absolute guarantee that when you have successfully completed your training you will automatically make your way in the profession. It‘s all a matter of luck plus talent. Yet there is a demand for new faces and new talent, and there is always the prospect of 

excitement, glamour and the occasional rich reward.

D. 

I have frequently been asked to define this magical thing called talent, which everyone is looking out for. I believe it is best described as natural skill plus imagination – the latter being the most difficult quality to access. And it has a lot to do with the person‘s courage and their belief in what they are doing and the way they are putting it across.

E. 

Where does the desire to act come from? It is often very difficult to put into words your own reasons for wanting to act. Certainly, in the theatre the significant thing is that moment of contact between the actor on the stage and a particular audience. And making this brief contact is central to all acting, wherever it takes place – it is what drives all actors to act.

F. 

If you ask actors how they have done well in the profession, the response will most likely be a shrug. They will know certain things about themselves and aspects of their own technique and the techniques of others. But they will take nothing for granted, because they know that they are only as good as their current job, and that their fame 

may not continue.

G. 

Disappointment is the greatest enemy of the actor. Last month you may have been out of work, selling clothes or waitressing. Suddenly you are asked to audition for a part, but however much you want the job, the truth is that it may deny you. So actors tend not to talk about their chances. They come up with ways of protecting themselves 

against the stress of competing for a part and the possibility of rejection.

H. 

Essentia l  

qualities

Nobody likes being rejected. And remember that the possibility is there from the very first moment you start going in for parts professionally. You are saying that you are available, willing and hopefully, talented enough for the job. And, in many ways, it‘s up to you, for if you don‘t care enough, no one will care for you.



For questions 1-5, choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings  below. Write the correct numbers (i-viii) in the corresponding numbered boxes. i. Dealing with unpleasant feelings 

ii. What lies behind the motive? 

iii. Your own responsibility 

vi. Reactions toward the job 

vii. Uncertainties about the future 

1. Paragraph B vi 

2. Paragraph D iii 

3. Paragraph E ii 

4. Paragraph F vii 

5. Paragraph G




For questions 6-10, complete the sentences below by writing NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS  taken from the reading passage. 

6. Every actor cares about the contract between himself and a group of audience. 7. Talent is characterized as a combination of skills and imagination .

Practice Tests for the  

Compiler: Ngo Minh  

gifted 

Chau 

8. What the actor has to deal with very often is the sense of disappointment - chances  for a part are narrow no matter how much you like the part. 

9. If actors become famous, it is very likely that they will be as a return. 10. The rejection tis very likely to happen as soon as you start your profession  and it is very stressful. 

IV. WRITING 

Part 1: Read the following extract and use your own words to summarize it. Your summary should be about 80 words long. You MUST NOT copy the original. 

A tertiary education is an investment for your future. It is giving three to five years of your life towards what you will eventually do with your life and for many of you, your journey begins right after O level. Therefore, you need to make this decision wisely. Here are some pointers to help you make informed decisions about the college you want to enrol in. 

Before choosing a college, you should first know what you want to study. Check the list of online colleges and universities for those that offer what you want and select the ones that meet your requirement. You may also want to find out about the location of your campus. Would you rather be close to home or do you want to be as far away and as independent as possible? It is also best to find out as much as you can about housing arrangements before you decide on an institution of higher learning to reduce any hassle later. Some colleges offer on-campus accommodation or will help you look for outside accommodation. Last but not least, make sure you have the finances to see you through your studies as college education can be expensive. 

Part 2: Graph describing 

The graph shows the number of hours children aged 10-11 spend on watching TV and  computers in the UK from 2000 to 2009. 

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown. Write about 150  words. 

Time schoolchildren (10 - 11 years old) spent on different home activities 

25 

k

e

e

w

e

p

s r

u

o

H

20 15 10

Television Computer




2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 

Part 3. Essay writing 

Some schools often get students’ ideas to evaluate their teachers. In your opinion, should all schools ask students to evaluate their teacher? 

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 

PRACTICE TEST 2 

I. LISTENING 

Part 1: Listen to a lecture about behavior of Dolphins and complete the note below. Write NO  MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. 

BEHAVIOUR OF DOLPHINS 

- almost 40 species of dolphin - found (1)  

- usually in shallower seas - carnivores 

SOCIALISING 

- very sociable and live in pods 

- super-pods may have more than (2) _ dolphins - have strong social bonds 

- help other animals - Moko helped a whale and calf escape from (3)  

- have been known to assist swimmers 

CULTURE 

- discovered in May 2005 that young bottlenose dolphins learn to (4)  

- dolphins pass knowledge from mothers to daughters, whereas primates pass to (5)  AGGRESSION 

- dolphins may be aggressive towards each other 

-Like humans, this is due to disagreements over (6) and competition for females - Infanticide sometimes occurs and the killing of porpoises 

FOOD 

- dolphins have a variety of feeding methods, some of which are (7) to one population 

- Methods include: 

herding 

coralling 

(8) or strand feeding 

whacking fish with their flukes 

PLAYING 

- have a variety of playful activities 

- common behaviour with an object or small animal include: 

carrying it along 

passing it along 

(9) away from another dolphin 

throwing it out the water 

- may harass other animals 

- playful behaviour may include other (10) such as humans 

Part 2: Listen to a tutor and a student discussing transport. Write NO MORE THAN THREE  WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. 

1. What is John researching? 

 

2. Apart from pollution, what would John like to see reduced? 

 

3. According to John‘s tutor‘s, what can cars sometimes act as? 

 .

Practice Tests for the  

Compiler: Ngo Minh  

gifted 

Chau 

4. How much does John‘s tutor pay to drive into London? 

 

5. In Singapore, what do car owners use to pay their road tax? 

 

Part 3: Listen to the classroom conversation about the benefits of sport and decide whether the  following statements are true (T) or False (F). Write T or F in the space given. 

Statements 

True (T) 

False (F)

1. The class have already talked about at least three of the physical effects sport has on the human body.



2. Doing sport can slow down the production of chemicals in the brain that make us feel good.



3. It doesn‘t matter which sport you choose, as long as you‘re good at it.



4. Swimmers or tennis players are responsible for their own achievements.



5. Being part of a team requires you to practise more regularly.





Part 4: You will hear a radio discussion about children who invent imaginary friends. Choose the  best answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you hear. 

1. In the incident that Liz describes,

A. her daughter asked her to stop the car B. she had to interrupt the journey twice C. she got angry with her daughter D. her daughter wanted to get out of the car 2. What does the presenter say about the latest research into imaginary friends? A. It contradicts other research on the subject. 

B. It shows that the number of children who have them is increasing. 

C. It indicates that negative attitudes towards them are wrong. 

D. It focuses on the effect they have on parents. 

3. How did Liz feel when her daughter had an imaginary friend? 

A. always confident that it was only a temporary situation 

B. occasionally worried about the friend‘s importance to her daughter 

C. slightly confused as to how she should respond sometimes 

D. highly impressed by her daughter‘s inventiveness 

4. Karen says that one reason why children have imaginary friends is that _ . A. they are having serious problems with their real friends 

B. they can tell imaginary friends what to do 

C. they want something that they cannot be given 

D. they want something that other children haven‘t got 

5. Karen says that the teenager who had invented a superhero is an example of . A. a very untypical teenager B. a problem that imaginary friend can cause C. something she had not expected to discover D. how children change as they get older 

II. LEXICO-GRAMMAR 

Part 1: Choose the best option A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences. 1. She agreed to go with him to the football match although she had no interest in the game at  all. 

A. apologetically B. grudgingly C. shamefacedly D. discreetly 2. The smoke from the burning tyres could be seen for miles. 

A. sweeping B. billowing C. radiating D. bulgingo

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3. A common cause of is the use of untreated water in preparation for foods, which is quite  common in certain underdeveloped countries. 

A. displeasure B. malnutrition C. eupepsia D. dysentery 4. Among scientists and non-scientists , many now say that it‘s a given that human-induced  warming threatens to disrupt life on Earth. 

A. respectively B. alike C. both D. likewise 5. We are pleased to inform you that we have decided to your request for British citizenship. A. give B. grant C. permit D. donate 6. Only after he had carefully the figures did he make any comments. 

A. estimated B. watched C. scrutinised D. remarked 7. I‘m not sufficiently versed computers to understand what you‘re saying. A. to B. into C. about D. in 

8. Tom‘s normally very efficient but he‘s been making a lot of mistakes . A. of late B. for now C. in a while D. shortly 9. On the way to Cambridge yesterday, the road was blocked by a fallen tree, so we had to make a  

A. deviation B. digression C. detour D. departure 10. Let us hope that _ a nuclear war, the human race still survive. 

A. in relation to B. with reference to C. in the event of D. within the realm of 

Part 2: Give the correct forms of the words given to complete the passages. 

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 

Alternative medicine is, by definition, an alternative to something else: modern, Western medicine.  But the term ‗alternative‘ can be (1) misleading (LEAD), even off-putting for some people. Few (2) practitioners (PRACTICE) of homeopathy, acupuncture, (3) herbalism  (HERBAL) and the like regard therapies as complete substitutes for modern medicine. Rather, they consider their disciplines as (4) substitutes (SUPPLY) to orthodox medicine. The problem is that many doctors refuse even to recognize ‗natural‘ or alternative medicine. To do so calls for a (5)  radically (RADICAL) different view of health, illness and cure. But whatever doctors may think, the demand for alternative forms of medical therapy is stronger than ever before, as the (6) limitations  (LIMIT) of modern medical science become more widely understood. Alternative therapies are often dismissed by orthodox medicine because they are sometimes (7) administered (ADMINISTRATION) by people with no formal medical training. But, in comparison with many traditional therapies, western medicine as we know it today is a very recent phenomenon. Until only 150 years ago, herbal medicine and simple (8) inorganic (ORGAN) compounds were the most effective treatment available. Despite the medical establishment‘ (9) intolerant (TOLERATE) attitude, alternative therapies are being accepted by more and more doctors, and the World Health Organization has agreed to promote the (10) intergration (INTEGRATE) of proven, valuable, `alternative´ knowledge and skills in western medicine. 

Part 3: There are 10 mistakes in the following passage. Write the mistakes and corrections in the space given. 

True relaxing is most certainly not a matter of flopping down in front of the television with a welcome drink. Nor is it about drifting into an exhausted sleep. Useful though these responses to tension and over-tiredness might be, we should distinguish among them and conscious relaxation in terms of quality and effect. Regarded of the level of tiredness, real relaxation is a state of alert yet in the same time passive awareness, in which our bodies are at rest while our minds are waken.

Moreover, it is as natural for a healthy person to be relaxed when moving as resting. Being relaxed in action means we bring the appropriate energy to everything we do, so to have a feeling of health tiredness by the end of the day, rather than one of exhaustion. Unfortunately, as a result of living in today‘s competitive world, we are under constant strain and have difficult in coping, let alone nurturing our body‘s abilities. Which needs to be rediscovered is conscious relaxation. With that in mind we must apply ourselves to understand stress and the nature of its causes how deep-seated. 

Part 4. Fill in each blank with the correct preposition(s)/ particle(s. 

1. Footballers used to abide bt the referee‘s decision, but nowadays they are just as likely to punch  him in the mouth. 

2. My speech is okay but I just hope I don‘t dry up as soon as I get to the podium. 3. My brother has always been onthe fringe of the Labour party, never at the centre. 4. The paintings were given to the state by the millionaire inlieu of taxes. 5. Did you know that Samantha has taken up Martin again - they‘re spending lots of time  together. 

6. I‘ve been asked to key information of the computer immediately. 

7. I don‘t like him as every time he asks me to do something, his voice is always laden with  threat. 

8. I feel quite nostalgic _ about the place where I grew up. 

9. I was thinking of going to live in Scotland, but when I heard that I would have to wear a kilt, I  decided against it. 

10. Good hygiene helps keep down the levels of infection. 

III. READING 

Part 1. Read the article below and circle the word which best fits each space. Broadcasting has democratized the publication of language, often at its most informal, even undressed. Now the ears of the educated cannot escape the language of the masses. It (1) them on the news, weather, sports, commercials, and the ever-proliferating game shows. This wider dissemination of popular speech may easily give purists the (2) that language is suddenly going to hell in this generation, and may (3) the new paranoia about it. 

It might also be argued that more Armericans hear more correct, even beautiful, English on television than ever before. Through television more models of good usage (4) more American homes than was ever possible in other times. Television gives them lots of (5) English too, some awful, some creative, but that is not new. 

Hidden in this is a (6) _ fact: our language is not the special private property of the language police, or grammarians, or teachers, or even great writers. The (7) of English is that it has always been the tongue of the common people, literate or not. 

English belongs to everybody: the funny (8) of phrase that pops into the mind of a farmer telling a story; or the (9) salesman‘s dirty joke; or the teenager saying, "Gag me with a spoon"; or the pop lyric - all contribute, are all as (10) as the tortured image of the academic, or the line the poet sweats over for a week. 

1. A. circles B. surrenders C. supports D. surrounds 2. A. thought B. idea C. sight D. belief 3. A. justify B. inflate C. explain D. idealise 4. A. render B. reach C. expose D. leave 5. A. colloquial B. current C. common D. spoken 6. A. central B. stupid C. common D. simple

Practice Tests for the  

Compiler: Ngo Minh  

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Chau 

7. A. genii B. genius C. giant D. generalisation 8. A. turn B. twist C. use D. time 9. A. tour B. transport C. travel D. travelling 10. A. valued B. valid C. truthful D. imperfect 

Part 2: Fill in the blanks with one suitable word for each to complete the following passage. Throughout our lives, right from the moment when as infants we cry to express our hunger, we are  engaged in social interaction of one form or another. Each and (1) every time we encounter 

fellow human beings, some kind of social interaction will take place, (2)whether a bus and paying the fare for the journey, or socializing with friends. It goes without (3) 

it‘s getting on saying, 

therefore, that we need the ability to communicate. Without some method of (4) transmitting intentions, we would be at a(n) (5) complete loss when it came to interacting socially. Communication (6) involves the exchange of information which can be anything from a gesture to a friend signalling boredom to the presentation of a university thesis which may only ever be read by a (7) handful of others, or it could be something in (8) between the two. Our highly developed languages set us (9) apart from animals. But for these languages, we could not communicate sophisticated or abstract ideas. Nor could we talk or write about people or objects mot immediately present. (10) were _ we restricted to discussing objects already present, we would be able to make abstract generalizations about the world. 

Part 3: Read the passage then circle the best option A, B, C or D. 

PERCEPTION 

It is often helpful when thinking about biological processes to consider some apparently similar yet better understood non-biological process. In the case of visual perception an obvious choice would be colour photography. Since in many respects eyes resemble cameras, and percepts photographs, is it not reasonable to assume that perception is a sort of photographic process whereby samples of the external world become spontaneously and accurately reproduced somewhere inside our heads? Unfortunately, the answer must be no. The best that can be said of the photographic analogy is that it points up what perception is not. Beyond this it is superficial and misleading. Four simple experiments should make the matter plain. 

In the first a person is asked to match a pair of black and white discs, which are rotating at such a speed as to make them appear uniformly grey. One disc is standing in shadow, the other in bright illumination. By adjusting the ratio of black to white in one of the discs the subject tries to make it look the same as the other. The results show him to be remarkably accurate, for it seems he has made the proportion of black to white in the brightly illuminated disc almost identical with that in the disc which stood in shadow. But there is nothing photographic about his perception, for when the matched discs, still spinning, are photographed, the resulting print shows them to be quite dissimilar in appearance. The disc in shadow is obviously very much darker than the other one. What has happened? Both the camera and the person were accurate, but their criteria differed. One might say that the camera recorded things as they look, and the person things as they are. But the situation is manifestly more complex than this, for the person also recorded things as they look. He did better than the camera because he made them look as they really are. He was not misled by the differences in illumination. He showed perceptual constancy. By reason of an extremely rapid, wholly unconscious piece of computation he received a more accurate record of the external world than could the camera. 

In the second experiment a person is asked to match with a colour card the colours of two pictures in dim illumination. One is of a leaf, the other of a donkey. Both are coloured an equal shade of green. In making his match he chooses a much stronger green for the leaf than for the donkey. The leaf evidently

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looks greener than the donkey. The percipient makes a perceptual world compatible with his own experience. It hardly needs saying that cameras lack this versatility. 

In the third experiment hungry, thirsty and satiated people are asked to equalize the brightness of pictures depicting food, water and other objects unrelated to hunger or thirst. When the intensities at which they set the pictures are measured it is found that hungry people see pictures relating to food as brighter than the rest (i.e. to equalize the pictures they make the food ones less intense), and thirsty people do likewise with drink‖ pictures. For the satiated group no differences are obtained between the different objects. In other words, perception serves to satisfy needs, not to enrich subjective experience. Unlike a photograph the percept is determined by more than just the stimulus. 

The fourth experiment is of a rather different kind. With ears plugged, their eyes beneath translucent goggles and their bodies either encased in cotton wool, or floating naked in water at body temperature, people are deprived for considerable periods of external stimulation. Contrary to what one might expect, however, such circumstances result not in a lack of perceptual experience but rather a surprising change in what is perceived. The subjects in such an experiment begin to see, feel and hear things which bear no more relationship to the immediate external world than does a dream in someone who is asleep. These people are not asleep yet their hallucinations, or so-called autisticperceptions, may be as vivid, if not more so, than any normal percept. 

1. In the first paragraph, the author suggests that . 

A. colour photography is a biological process B. vision is rather like colour photography C. vision is a sort of photographic process 

D. vision and colour photography are very different 

2. What does the word itin the first paragraph refer to ? 

A. perception 

B. the photographic process 

3. In the first experiment, it is proved that a person _   

C. the comparison with photography D. the answer 

A. makes mistakes of perception and is less accurate than a camera B. can see more clearly than a camera 

C. is more sensitive to changes in light than a camera 

D. sees colours as they are in spite of changes in the light 4. What does the word thatin the second paragraph refer to ? 

A. the proportion of black to white B. the brightly illuminated disc 

5. The second experiment shows that

C. the other disc D. the grey colour 

A. people see colours according to their ideas of how things should look 

B. colours look different in a dim light 

C. cameras work less efficiently in a dim light D. colours are less intense in larger objects 6. What does the word satiatedin the fourth paragraph mean? 

A. tired B. bored C. not hungry or thirsty D. nervous 7. What does to equalize the brightnessin the fourth paragraph mean? 

A. To arrange the pictures so that the equally bright ones are together 

B. To change the lighting so that the pictures look equally bright 

C. To describe the brightness D. to move the pictures nearer or further away 8. The third experiment proves that

A. we see things differently according to our interest in them 

B. pictures of food and drink are especially interesting to everybody

Practice tests for the national examination for the  

Compiler: Ngô Minh  

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Châu 

C. cameras are not good at equalising brightness 

D. satiated people see less clearly than hungry or thirsty people 

9. The expression contrary to what one might expectoccurs the fifth paragraph. What might one expect? 

A. that the subjects would go to sleep 

B. that they would feel uncomfortable and disturbed 

C. that they would see, hear and feel nothing 

D. that they would see, hear and feel strange things 

10. The fourth experiment proves that

A. people deprived of sense stimulation go mad 

B. people deprived of sense stimulation dream 

C. people deprived of sense stimulation experience unreal things 

D. people deprived of sense stimulation lack perceptual experience 

Part 4. Read the following passage and do the task following. 

VIEWS OF INTELLIGENCE ACROSS CULTURES 

A In recent years, researchers have found that people in non-Western cultures often have ideas about intelligence that are considerably different from those that have shaped Western intelligence tests. This cultural bias may therefore work against certain groups of people. Researchers in cultural differences in intelligence, however, face a major dilemma, namely: how can the need to compare people according to a standard measure be balanced with the need to assess them in the light of their own values and concepts? 

B For example, Richard Nesbitt of the University of Michigan concludes that East Asian and Western cultures have developed cognitive styles that differ in fundamental ways, including how intelligence is understood. People in Western cultures tend to view intelligence as a means for individuals to devise categories and engage in rational debate, whereas Eastern cultures see it as a way for members of a community to recognize contradiction and complexity and to play their social roles successfully. This view is backed up by Sternberg and Shih-Ying, from the University of Taiwan, whose research shows that Chinese conceptions of intelligence emphasize understanding and relating to others, and knowing when to show or not show one‘s intelligence. 

C The distinction between East Asia and the West is just one of many distinctions that separate different ways of thinking about intelligence. Robert Serpell spent a number of years studying concepts of intelligence in rural African communities. He found that people in many African communities, especially in those where Western-style schooling is still uncommon, tend to blur the distinction between intelligence and social competence. In rural Zambia, for instance, the concept of nzelu includes both cleverness and responsibility. Likewise, among the Luo people in rural Kenya, it has been found that ideas about intelligence consist of four broad concepts. These are named paro or practical thinking, luoro, which includes social qualities like respect and responsibility, winjo or comprehension, and rieko. Only the fourth corresponds more or less to the Western idea of intelligence. 

D In another study in the same community, Sternberg and Grogorenko have found that children who score highly on a test of knowledge about medicinal herbs, a test of practical intelligence, often score poorly on tests of academic intelligence. This suggests that practical and academic intelligence can develop independently of each other, and the values of a culture may shape the direction in which a child‘s intelligence develops. 

It also tends to support a number of other studies which suggest that people who are unable to solve complex problems in the abstract can often solve them when they are presented in a familiar

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context. Ashley Maynard, for instance, now professor of psychology at the University of Hawaii, conducted studies of cognitive development among children in a Mayan village in Mexico using toy looms, spools of thread, and other materials drawn from the local environment. The research suggested that the children‘s development, could be validly compared to the progression described by Western theories of development, but only by using materials and experimental designs based on their own culture. 

E The original hope of many cognitive psychologists was that a test could be developed that was absent of cultural bias. However, there seems to be an increasing weight of evidence to suggest that this is unlikely. Raven‘s Progressive Matrices, for example, were originally advertised as ‗culture free‘ but are now recognized as culturally loaded. Such non-verbal intelligence tests are based on cultural constructs which may not appear in a particular culture. It is doubtful whether cultural comparisons of concepts of intelligence will ever enable us to move towards creating a test which encompasses all aspects of intelligence as understood by all cultures. It seems even less likely that such a test could be totally free of cultural imbalance somewhere. 

The solution to the dilemma seems to lie more in accepting that cultural neutrality is unattainable and that administering any valid intelligence test requires a deep familiarity with the relevant culture‘s values and practices. 

Questions 1-5 

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph A–E from the list of headings below (i-ix). There are more headings than paragraphs. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. List of Headings 

i Research into African community life 

ii Views about intelligence in African societies 

iii The limitations of Western intelligence tests 

iv The Chinese concept of intelligence 

v The importance of cultural context in test design 

vi The disadvantages of non-verbal intelligence tests 

vii A comparison between Eastern and Western understanding of intelligence viii Words for intelligencein African languages 

ix The impossibility of a universal intelligence test 

Your answers 

1. Section A iii 

2. Section B vii 

3. Section C i 

4. Section D v 

5. Section E ix 

Questions 6-10 

Look at the researchers in 6-10 and the list off findings below. Match each researcher with the correct  finding. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. 

Your answers 

6. Ashley Maynard e 

7. Richard Nesbitt g 

8. Sternberg and Grogorenko d 

9. Sternberg and Shih-Ying a 

10. Robert Serpell c 

List of findings

A There is a clear relationship between intelligence and relationships with others in Chinese culture.  B Children frequently scoring well in academic tests score better in practical tests. C The difference between intelligence and social competence is not distinct in many African  communities. 

D Children frequently scoring well in practical tests score less well in academic tests. E In experiments to measure cognitive development, there is a link between the materials used and the  test results. 

F The connection between intelligence and social competence in many African communities is not  clear. 

G The way cognition is viewed in East Asian cultures differs fundamentally from those in Western  cultures. 

H Chinese culture sees revelations about one‘s intelligence as part of intelligence. 

IV. WRITING 

Part 1: Summarize in no more than 120 words, the various communicative methods practiced by animals in the wild. 

Communication is part of our everyday life. We greet one another, smile or frown, depending on our moods. Animals too, communicate, much to our surprise. Just like us, interaction among animals can be both verbal and non-verbal. Singing is one way in which animals can interact with one another. Male blackbirds often use their melodious songs to catch the attention of the females. These songs are usually rich in notes variation, encoding various kinds of messages. Songs are also used to warn and keep off other blackbirds from their territory, usually a place where they dwell and reproduce. Large mammals in the oceans sing too, according to adventurous sailors. Enormous whales groan and grunt while smaller dolphins and porpoises produce pings, whistles and clicks. These sounds are surprisingly received by other mates as far as several hundred kilometers away. Besides singing, body language also forms a large part of animals' communication tactics. Dominant hyenas exhibit their power by raising the fur hackles on their necks and shoulders, while the submissive ones normally "surrender" to the powerful parties by crouching their heads low and curling their lips a little, revealing their teeth in friendly smiles.Colors, which are most conspicuously found on animals are also important means of interaction among animals. Male birds of paradise, which have the most gaudy colored feathers often hang themselves upside down from branches, among fluffing plumes, displaying proudly their feathers, attracting the opposite sex. The alternating black and white striped coats of zebras have their roles to play too. Each zebra is born with a unique set of stripes which enables its mates to recognize them. When grazing safely, their stripes are all lined up neatly so that none of them loses track of their friends. However, when danger such as a hungry lion approaches, the zebras would dart out in various directions, making it difficult for the lion to choose his target. Insects such as the wasps, armed with poisonous bites or stings, normally have brightly painted bodies to remind other predators of their power. Hoverflies and other harmless insects also make use of this fact and colored their bodies brightly in attempts to fool their predators into thinking that they are as dangerous and harmful as the wasps too. 

Part 2. The charts below give information on the ages of people when they got married in one particular country in 1996 and 2008. Summarise the information by selecting and repairing the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Practice tests for the national examination for the  

Compiler: Ngô Minh  

gifted 

Châu 

Part 3. Essay 

STEM education is one of the latest ideas in the educational sphere. Write an essay about 350 words  about advantages and disadvantages of STEM education. 

PRACTICE TEST

I. LISTENING 

Part 1. Listen to the passage and then fill in the blank with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS. CHERRIES 

During the visit to a number of fruit farms in (1) , the speaker found broad agreement among most of the growers about fruit planting. 

The speaker gives the example of (2) as a crop being replaced by cherries. To protect young trees from extremes of weather, a (3) may be used. Cherries are prone to cracking because there is hardly any (4) on the skin of the fruit.  The speaker compares the cherry to a (5) when explaining the effect of rain on the  fruit. 

Shoppers are advised to purchase cherries which have a (6) stem and look fresh and  tasty. 

The traditional view was that cherries need up to (7) before they produce a useful  crop. 

The most popular new variety of cherry tree amongst farmers has the name (8) . While picking cherries, keep a (9) in your mouth to stop you eating too many. That way you end up with at least a (10) of this delicious fruit in your basket!

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Practice tests for the national examination for the  

Compiler: Ngô Minh  

gifted 

Châu 

Part 2. Listen to the recording and answer the following questions. 

1. What kind of food do people in the north of China eat more than ones in the south? 2. What is the first change of the diet in China? 

3. Where are the snack foods now being seen? 

4. What kind of dishes does the man prefer? 

5. What does Chinese cooking rely on? 

Part 3. You are going to hear a conversation between Richard and Louise. As you listen, indicate  whether the statements are True (T), False (F) Not Given (NG). 

1. Richard does most of the washing up in his family. 

2. Richard‘s father makes him clean his shoes. 

3. Louise doesn‘t mind shopping for food. 

4. Louise prefers to wait for her grandparents to visit her. 

5. Louise‘s father repairs the car himself. 

Part 4. You will hear a radio interview in which an artist called Sophie Axel is talking about her life  and career. Choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you hear. 1. Sophie illustrates the importance of colour in her life by saying she

A. has coloured daydreams B. associates letters and colours C. paints people in particular colours D. links colours with days of the week 2. Sophie‘s attitude to risk is that her children should be

A. left to cope with it B. warned about it 

C. taught how to deal with it D. protected from it 

3. Shophie‘s mother and aunt use their artistic gifts professionally in the . A. pictures they paint together B. plays they perform on stage C. objects they help to create D. clothes they design and make 4. Sophie was a failure at art school because she _

A. was not interested in design B. favoured introspective painting C. was very pessimistic D. had a different approach to art 5. When Sophie had no money to repair her bike, she offered to

A. take a part-time job B. publicise a national charity C. produce an advertisement D. design posters on commission 

II. LEXICO-GRAMMAR 

Part 1. Choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) to complete each sentence below. 1. Why did you and mention the party to George? It was supposed to be a surprise. A. let the cat out of the bag B. put the cat among the pigeons C. have kittens D. kill two birds with one stone. 2. It‘s a shame to fall out so badly with your own _

A. heart to heart B. flesh and blood C. heart and soul D. skin and bone 3. They were able to over their meal and enjoy it instead of having to rush back to work. A. loiter B. stay C. linger D. dwell 4. I thought something terrible had happened but it was all a in a teacup. A. storm B. gale C. breeze D. wind

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5. It is necessary that the problem solved right away. 

A. would be B. might be C. be D. is 6. In the northern and central parts of the states of Idaho and churning rivers. A. majestic mountains are found B. found majestic mountains 

C. finding majestic mountains D. are found majestic mountains 7. According to the _ of the contract, tenants must give six months‘ notice if they intend to leave. A. laws B. rules C. terms D. details 8. I know it‘s difficult but you‘ll just have to _ and bear it. 

A. laugh B. smile C. grin D. chuckle 9. I didn‘t want to make a decision , so I said I‘d like to think about it. 

A. in one go B. there and then C. at a stroke D. on and off 10. We are not in a _ hurry so let‘s have another coffee. 

A. dashing B. racing C. rushing D. tearing 

Part 2. Read the passage and give the correct form of the words given in brackets. EXTRACT FROM A BOOK ABOUT MEETING 

We are (1. SURE) assured by the experts that we are, as a species, designed for face-to- face communication. But does that really mean having every meeting in person? Ask the bleary-eyed sales team this question as they struggle (2. LABOUR) labouriously through their weekly teambuilding session and that answer is unlikely to be in the (3. AFFIRM) affirmative  

 . Unless you work for a very small business or have an (4. EXCEPT) exceptionally high boredom threshold, you doubtless spend more time sitting in meetings than you want to. Of course, you could always follow business Norman‘s example. He liked to express (5. SOLID) solidarity with customers queuing at the (6. CHECK) checkout by holding management meetings standing up. Is email a realistic (7. ALTER) alternative ? It‘s clearly a powerful tool for disseminating information, but as a meeting substitute it‘s seriously flawed. Words alone can cause trouble. We‘re all full of (8. SECURE) insecurities that can be unintentionally triggered by others and people are capable of reading anything they like into an email. There is also a (9. TEND) tendency  

 for email to be used by people who wish to avoid ‗real‘ encounters because they don‘t want to be (10. FRONT) confrontedwith any awkwardness. 

Part 3. The passage below contains 10 mistakes. Underline the mistakes and write their correct forms in the space provided in the column on the right. (0) has been done as an example. When a celebrity, a politics or other person in the media spotlight loses their temper in public, they run the risk of hitting the headings in a most embarrassing way. For such uncontrolling outbursts of anger are often triggered by what seem to be trivial matters and, if they are caught on camera, can make the person appear slightly ridiculousness. But it‘s not only the rich and famous who is prone to fits of rage. According to recent surveys, ordinary people are increasingly tending to lose their cool in public. Although anger is a potentially destructive emotion that uses up a lot of energy and creates a high level of emotional and physical stress - and it stops us thinking rational. Consequently angry people often end up saying, and doing things they later have cause to regret. So, how can anger be avoided? Firstly, diet and lifestyle may be to blame. Tolerance and irritability certainly come to the surface when someone hasn‘t slept properly or has skipped a meal, and any intake of caffeine can make things worst. Take regular exercise can help to ease and diffuse feelings of aggression, however, reducing the chances of an angry response. But if something or someone does make you angry, it‘s advisable not to react immediately. Once you‘ve calmed down, things won‘t look half as badly as you first thought. 1. line 1: politics 🡪 politician

Part 4. Fill in each blank with a suitable particle or preposition. 

2. Don‘t forget the date. I‘m banking foryour help. 

3. It was decided to break up diplomatic relations with that country. 

4. The police arrived immediately after the call and caught the burglar on the spot. 5. Over 3,000 workers were laid out when the company moved the factory abroad. 6. They worked very hard in their new business venture and their efforts eventually paid off . 7. As the day wore by, I began to feel more and more uncomfortable in their company. 8. There was strong evidence to suggest that the judge presiding the case had been bought offb . 9. It‘s like a bolt from the blue. 

10. I didn‘t do much work, but I‘m  relieved that I scraped over my exam. 

11. The unemployment data must be seen as the background of world recession. 

III. READING 

Part 1. Read the following passage and choose the correct word(s) to each of the questions. Secretaries 

What‘s in a name? In the case of the secretary, or Personal Assistant (PA), it can be something rather surprising. The dictionary calls a secretary anyone who handles correspondence, keeps records and does clerical work for others‖. But while this particular job (1) _ looks a bit outdated, the word‘s original meaning is a hundred times more exotic and perhaps more appropriate. The word itself has been with us since the 14th century and comes from the medieval Latin word secretarius meaning 

something hidden‖. Secretaries started out as those members of staff with knowledge hidden from others, the silent ones mysteriously (2) the secret machinery of organizations. Some years ago something hiddenprobably meant (3) out of sight, tucked away with all the other secretaries and typists. A good secretary was an unremarkable one, efficiently (4) orders, and then returning mouse-like to his or her station behind the typewriter, but, with the (5) of new office technology, the job (6) upgraded itself and the role has changed to one closer to the original meaning. The skills required are more demanding and more technical. Companies are (7)  that secretarial staff should already be (8) trained in, and accustomed to working with, a (9) of word processing packages. In addition to this, they need the management skills to take on some administration, some personnel work and some research. The professionals in the (10) business point out that nowadays secretarial staff may even need some management skills to take on administration, personnel work and research. 

1. A. explanation B. detail C. definition D. characteristic 2. A. operating B. pushing C. vibrating D. effecting 3. A. kept B. covered C. packed D. held 4. A. satisfying B. obeying C. completing D. minding 5. A. advent B. approach C. entrance D. opening 6. A. truly B. validly C. correctly D. effectively 7. A. insisting B. ordering C. claiming D. pressing 8. A. considerably B. highly C. vastly D. supremely 9. A. group B. collection C. cluster D. range 10. A. appointment B. hiring C. recruitment D. engagement 

Part 2. Fill in each numbered blank with one suitable word to complete the passage. My new friend’s a robot

In fiction robots have a personality, (1) but reality is disappointingly different. Although sophisticated (2) enough to assemble cars and assist during complex surgery, modern robots are dumb automatons, (3) incapable of striking up relationships with their human operators. 

However, change is (4) on the horizon. Engineers argue that, as robots begin to make (5)  up a bigger part of society, they will need a way to interact with humans. To this end they will need artificial personalities. The big question is this: what does a synthetic companion need to have so that you want to engage (6) with it over a long period of time? Phones and computers have already shown the (7) extent to which people can develop relationships with inanimate electronic objects. 

Looking further (8) ahead , engineers envisage robots helping around the house, integrating with the web to place supermarket orders using email. Programming the robot with a human–like persona and (9) giving it the ability to learn its users‘ preferences, will help the person feel (10

 at ease with it. Interaction with such a digital entity in this context is more natural than sitting with a mouse and keyboard. 

Part 3. Read the following passage and choose the correct answer to each of the questions. Birds that feed in flocks commonly retire together into roosts. The reasons for roosting communally are not always obvious, but there are some likely benefits. In winter especially it is important for birds to keep warm at night and conserve precious food reserves. One way to do this is to find a sheltered roost. Solitary roosters shelter in dense vegetation or enter a cavity - horned larks dig holes in the ground and ptarmigan burrow into snow banks - but the effect of sheltering is magnified by several birds huddling together in the roosts, as wrens, swifts, brown creepers, bluebirds and anis do. Body contact reduces the surface area exposed to the cold air, so the birds keep each other warm. Two kinglets huddling together were found to reduce their heat losses by a quarter, and three together saved a third of their heat. 

The second possible benefit of communal roosts is that they act as information centers. During the day, parties of birds will have spread out to forage over a very large area. When they return in the evening some will have fed well, but others may have found little to eat. Some investigators have observed that when the birds set out again next morning, those birds that did not feed well on the previous day appear to follow those that did. The behavior of common and lesser kestrels may illustrate different feeding behaviors of similar birds with different roosting habits. The common kestrel hunts vertebrate animals in a small, familiar hunting ground, whereas the very similar lesser kestrel feeds on insects over a large area. The common kestrel roosts and hunts alone, but the lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks, possibly so one bird can learn from others where to find insect swarms. 

Finally, there is safety in numbers at communal roosts since there will always be a few birds awake at any given moment to give the alarm. But this increased protection is partially counteracted by the fact that mass roosts attract predators and are especially vulnerable if they are on the ground. Even those in trees can be attacked by birds of prey. The birds on the edge are at greatest risk since predators find it easier to catch small birds perching at the margins of the roost. 

1. What does the passage mainly discuss? 

A. How birds find and store food. B. How birds maintain body heat in the winter. C. Why birds need to establish territory. D. Why some species of birds nest together. 2. The word conservein the first paragraph is closest in meaning to _

A. retain B. watch C. locate D. share 3. Ptarmigan keep warm in the winter by . 

A. building nests in trees B. huddling together on the ground with other birds

C. digging tunnels into the snow D. burrowing into dense patches of vegetation

4. The word magnifiedin the first paragraph is closest in meaning to . A. combined B. caused C. modified D. intensified 5. The author mentions kinglets in the passage as an example of birds that . A. protect themselves by nesting in holes B. usually feed and nest in pairs C. nest together for warmth D. nest with other species of birds 6. Which of the following statements about lesser and common kestrels is TRUE? A. The lesser kestrel feeds sociably but the common kestrel does not. 

B. The lesser kestrel and the common kestrel have similar diets. 

C. The common kestrel nests in larger flocks than does the lesser kestrel. 

D. The common kestrel nests in trees; the lesser kestrel nests on the ground. 

7. The word foragein the passage is closest in meaning to

A. fly B. assemble C. feed D. rest 8. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an advantage derived by birds that  huddle together while sleeping? 

A. Some members of the flock warn others of impending dangers. 

B. Staying together provides a greater amount of heat for the whole flock 

C. Some birds in the flock function as information centers for others who are looking for food. D. Several members of the flock care for the young. 

9. Which of the following is a disadvantage of communal roosts that is mentioned in the passage? A. Diseases easily spread among the birds. B. Food supplies are quickly depleted. C. Some birds in the group will attack the others. 

D. Groups are more attractive to predators than individual birds are. 

10. The word theyin the third paragraph refers to

A. a few birds B. mass roosts C. predators D. trees 

Part 4. Read the passage including seven paragraphs and do the following tasks. Task 1. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the  correct number, i-viii, in boxes 1-5 below.

List of Headings 

i Different accounts of the same journey 

ii Bingham gains support 

iii A common belief 

iv The aim of the trip 

v A dramatic description 

vi A new route 

vii Bingham publishes his theory 

viii Bingham‘s lack of enthusiasm



Paragraphs 

Your answers:

Paragraph

iv

1. Paragraph

…vi……….

2. Paragraph

……viii…….

3. Paragraph

……v…….

4. Paragraph

……i…….

5. Paragraph

……vii…….

Paragraph

iii



The Lost City 

An explorer’s encounter with the ruined city of Machu Picchu, the most famous icon of the Inca civilisation 

A When the US explorer and academic Hiram Bingham arrived in South America in 1911, he was ready for what was to be the greatest achievement of his life: the exploration of the remote hinterland to the west of Cusco, the old capital of the Inca empire in the Andes mountains of Peru. His goal was to locate the remains of a city called Vitcos, the last capital of the Inca civilisation. Cusco lies on a high plateau at an elevation of more than 3,000 metres, and Bingham‘s plan was to descend from this plateau along the valley of the Urubamba river, which takes a circuitous route down to the Amazon and passes through an area of dramatic canyons and mountain ranges. 

B When Bingham and his team set off down the Urubamba in late July, they had an advantage over travellers who had preceded them: a track had recently been blasted down the valley canyon to enable rubber to be brought up by mules from the jungle. Almost all previous travellers had left the river at Ollantaytambo and taken a high pass across mountains to rejoin the river lower down, thereby cutting a substantial corner, but also therefore never passing through the area around Machu Picchu. 

C On 24 July they were a few days into their descent of the valley. The day began slowly, with Bingham trying to arrange sufficient mules for the next stage of the trek. His companions showed no interest in accompanying him up the nearby hill to see some ruins that a local farmer, Melchor Arteaga, had told them about the night before. The morning was dull and damp, and Bingham also seems to have been less than keen on the prospect of climbing the hill. In his book Lost City of the Incas, he relates that he made the ascent without having the least expectation that he would find anything at the top. 

D Bingham writes about the approach in vivid style in his book. First, as he climbs up the hill, he describes the ever-present possibility of deadly snakes, capable of making considerable springs when in pursuit of their prey‖; not that he sees any. Then there‘s a sense of mounting discovery as he comes across great sweeps of terraces, then a mausoleum, followed by monumental staircases and, finally, the grand ceremonial buildings of Machu Picchu. It seemed like an unbelievable dream … the sight held me spellbound …‖ he wrote. 

E We should remember, however, that Lost City of the Incas is a work of hindsight, not written until 1948, many years after his journey. His journal entries of the time reveal a much more gradual appreciation of his achievement. He spent the afternoon at the ruins noting down the dimensions of some of the buildings, then descended and rejoined his companions, to whom he seems to have said little about his discovery. At this stage, Bingham didn‘t realise the extent or the importance of the site, nor did he realise what use he could make of the discovery. 

F However, soon after returning it occurred to him that he could make a name for himself from this discovery. When he came to write the National Geographic magazine article that broke the story to the world in April 1913, he knew he had to produce a big idea. He wondered whether it could have been the birthplace of the very first Inca, Manco the Great, and whether it could also have been what chroniclers described as the last city of the Incas‖. This term refers to Cilcabamba, the settlement where the Incas had fled from Spanish invaders in the 1530s. Bingham made desperate attempts to prove this belief for nearly 40 years. Sadly, his vision of the site as both the beginning and end of the Inca civilisation, while a magnificent one, is inaccurate. We now know that Vilcabamba actually lies 65 kilometres away in the depths of the jungle.

G One question that has perplexed visitors, historians and archaeologists alike ever since Bingham, is why the site seems to have been abandoned before the Spanish Conquest. There are no references to it by any of the Spanish chroniclers – and if they had known of its existence so close to Cusco they would certainly have come in search of gold. An idea which has gained wide acceptance over the past few years is that Machu Picchu was a moya, a country estate built by an Inca emperor to escape the cold winters of Cusco, where the elite could enjoy monumental architectrue and spectacular views. Furthermore, the particular architecture of Machu Picchu suggests that it was constructed at the time of the greatest of all the Incas, the emperor Pachacuti (c.1438-71). By custom, Pachacuti‘s descendants built other similar estates for their own use, and so Machu Picchu would have been abandoned after his death, some 50 years before the Spanish Conquest. 

Task 2. Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage? Write True if the statement agrees with the information 

False if the statement contradicts the information 

Not Given if there is no information on this 

6. Bingham went to South America in search of an Inca city. t 

7. Bingham chose a particular route down the Urubamba valley because it was the most common route  used by travellers. f 

8. Bingham returned to Machu Picchu in order to find evidence to support his theory. ng 

Task 3. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. 

9. The track that took Bingham down the Urubamba valley had been created for the transportation of  rubber

10. Bingham found out about the ruins of Machu Picchu from a farmer in the Urubamba valley. 

IV. WRITING 

Part 1. Read the following passage and use your own words to summarize it. You MUST NOT copy or re-write the original. Your summary should be about 100 words long. 

One of the greatest men ever to have lived in the world was Dr Alexander Flemming. He was a dedicated English doctor who was very keen to do his best to cure his patients. However, there were no bacteria-fighting drugs at that time and many of his patients died of blood-poisoning. Therefore, Dr Flemming tried to discover a bacteria-fighting drug through experiments in his laboratory. 

He cultivated harmful germs on dishes of jelly. Surprisingly, he discovered that the harmful germs were killed by the mould in the jelly. The organisms in the mould produced chemical substances which killed the harmful germs. This was a fantastic discovery in 1928 - a mould that could kill harmful germs! As a result, Dr Flemming wanted to find the chemical substance made by the mould. 

Finally, he found the substance which was three times more effective than carbolic acid, the disinfectant for killing germs then. The new drug became known as penicillin, after the name of the mould. Dr Flemming‘s next challenge was to produce a large amount of this antibody for use on his patients. 

He continued with his experiments. With the outbreak of the Second World War, his drug was very much in demand. Subsequently, his wonder drug was produced in great amounts. The people responsible were Professor Sir Howard Florey who introduced its use for healing patients, and Dr E. Chain who studied it in detail. 

With the discovery of penicillin by Dr Flemming, fewer people died from bacteria infection. His drug had alleviated the sufferings of mankind and indeed saved the lives of millions. Hailed as one of the world‘s greatest contributors to medical science, he had made it possible not only to treat diseases but to prevent them too. His drug can be applied to animals as well. Therefore, if you had been treated

for diseases such as pneumonia, influenza and gum infection by antibiotics, you have Dr Flemming to thank for. 

In recognition of his brilliant discovery, Dr Flemming was knighted, a reward richly befitting his contribution to mankind. 

Part 2. The chart below shows male and female fitness membership between 1970 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. 

Write at least 150 words. 

Fitness Membership 

4500 

4000 

3500 

3000 

sr

e

2500 2000 

Women Men 

1500 

1000 

500 

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 2000 Years 

Part 3. In today’s job market it is far more important to have practical skills than theoretical knowledge. In the future, job applicants may not need any formal qualifications. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 

PRACTICE TEST 4 

I. LISTENING 

Part 1. Listen and complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE PRINTED WORD 

Statistics 

- many different full– and part-time courses 

- 17 students on the (1) _ and 7 full-time research - 9 full-time lecturers 

- about (2) percent of students are from outside the country Sponsorship 

- links with organizations in the publishing world 

- sponsorship of students, (3)  

- outside speakers 

- workshops built to expand facilities for (4) and restoration Teaching 

- main work is teaching the (5)  

- as most printing is now very technological, students have to be (6)  

- for students without the necessary skills, there are specialist technicians who deliver (7)  in computing 

Facilities 

- in printing, editing, page design and layout, book-binding 

- former students are now working as expert book (8) and  

Research 

- growing interest in the history of the printed word from early European etc. printing techniques - a visiting lecturer, Dr Yu, is an expert on early Chinese manuscripts and (9)  - department is very popular, with many (10) for each research position 

Part 2. You are going to listen to a conversation between a tutor and a university student and give  short answers to the questions below. 

1. What is the topic of their presentation? 

………………………………………………………………........................……………… 2. What are the main criteria to assess the presentation? 

…………………………………………………………….........................……………… 3. What was the strongest aspect of their presentation according to Sharon and Xiao Li? ……………………………………………………………….........................………… 4. Which part of their presentation was Xiao Li least happy with? 

………………………………………………………………......................…………… 5. Which section does Sharon feel they should have discussed in more depth? 

………………………………………………………………………………….................... 

Part 3. For questions 1-5, you will hear the beginning of a radio interview with Stephen Perrins, a  composer of musicals. Listen and decide whether these statements are true or false. 1. The light songs Stephen wrote at college weren‘t published because his family advised him against  it. 

2. Stephen and Jenny‘s original reason for writing Goldringer was that they wanted to include it in  their college show. 

3. Stephen prefers not to write the lyrics for his shows because he would rather work with someone  else. 

4. Stephen‘s purpose in mentioning Helen Downes is to convince listeners that the director has ultimate responsibility for a production. 

5. Stephen claims that reason why some newspapers criticize him is that they don‘t like his music. 

Part 4. You will hear part of an interview with a woman called Barbara Darby, who works as a casting director in the film industry. Choose the answer (A, B, C or D) that fits best according to what you hear. 

1. According to Barbara, a casting director needs above all . 

A. to learn from experience B. to be a good communicator C. to have a relevant qualification D. to have a natural feel for the job 2. Barbara says that she looks for actors who . 

A. can play a variety of roles B. complement each other 

C. accept her way of working D. think deeply about a part 3. At which stage in the casting process does Barbara meet the actors? 

A. before she goes to see them performing live 

B. once the director has approved them 

C. before a final short list is drawn up D. as soon as a final selection is made

4. Barbara explains that what motivates her now is a need for

A. personal satisfaction B. professional recognition 

C. a glamorous lifestyle D. financial security 

5. What made Barbara give up her job for a while? 

A. She‘d become tired of travelling. B. She was ready to try something new. C. She felt she‘d been put under too much pressure. 

D. She found that she was no longer as committed to it. 

II. LEXICO-GRAMMAR 

Part 1. Choose the best answer (A, B, C, or D) to each of the following questions. 1. How did you know that he was lying?It was just a feeling.‖ 

A. faint B. gut C. slight D. vain 2. She‘s a bit down in the at the moment – her husband has just lost his job. A. world B. dumps C. heart D. bottom 3. I‘m afraid we haven‘t got a spare bed. Can you with a mattress on the floor? A. make do B. make by C. make over D. make up 4. The train the bay and then turned inland for twenty miles. 

A. coasted B. skirted C. edged D. sided 5. The new company had been with one problem after another and looked as if it were about to  go under. 

A. glorified B. tainted C. fraught D. bewildered 6. As they travelled across the landscape, each one of them wondered how it was possible to  grow anything there. 

A. barren B. bustling C. grimy D. mundane 7. Mike decided that election to the local council would provide a to a career in national politics. A. milestone B. springboard C. highway D. turning point 8. As a poet, I think she comparison with the greatest this century. 

A. stands B. makes C. leads D. matches 9. We all have to follow the rules, and none of us is the law. 

A. beyond B. over C. above D. onto 10. I didn‘t out to be a millionaire – I just wanted to run a successful business. A. set B. go C. begin D. watch 

Part 2. Fill each gap of the following passage with the correct form of the word in brackets. Meditation 

People are often put off meditation by what they see as its many mystical associations. Yet meditation is a (1. STRAIGHT) straightfoward _ technique which merely involves sitting and resting the mind. In addition to its (2. SIMPLE) simplicity , meditation offers powerful help in the battle against stress. Hundreds of studies have shown that meditation, when (3. TAKE) undertaken in a principled way, can reduce hypertension which is related to stress in the body. Research has proved that certain types of meditation can (4. SUBSTANCE) substantially decrease key stress symptoms such as anxiety and (5. IRRITATE) irritability . In fact, those who practise meditation with any (6. REGULAR) regularity see their doctors less and spend, on average, seventy per cent fewer days in hospital. They are said to have more stamina, a happier (7. DISPOSE) disposition and even enjoy better relationships. 

When you learn to meditate, your teacher will give you a personal ‗mantra‘ or word which you use every time you practise the technique and which is (8. SUPPOSE) supposedly chosen according

to your needs. Initial classes are taught individually but (9. SEQUENCE) subsequent   classes

usually consist of a group of students and take place over a period of about four days. The aim is to learn how to slip into a deeper state of (10. CONSCIOUS) consciousness for twenty minutes a day. The rewards speak for themselves. 

Part 3. The passage below contains 10 errors. Underline and correct them. 

The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are active promoting their 'wilderness' regions - such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands - to highly spending tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by defining, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that does not mean that there is no cost. Like the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development recognized, these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable of abnormal pressures) not just in terms of the culture of their inhabitation. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An important character is their marked seasonality. Consequently, most human acts, including tourism, are limited to clearly defined parts of the year. 

Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural beauty and the unique culture of its people. And poor governments in these areas have welcomed the ‗adventure tourists‘, grateful for the currency they bring. For several years, tourism is the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economics of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayres Rocks in Australia and Arizona's Monument Valley. 

Part 4. Fill in the gaps of the following sentences with suitable particles or  

prepositions. There is an example at the beginning (0). 

Example: 0. up with 

1. He finds it hard to put the noise of the nearby factory. 

2. The station is within walking distance of the hotel. 

3. I‘m so tired after work that I often drop off in front of the TV. 

4. The decision was deferred in a later meeting. 

5. That awful new office block is a real blot on the landscape. 

6. I don‘t know how Nicole survives, living all away in the sticks. 7. Carl and I just spent the whole day lazing out listening to music. 8. Unfortunately, most of the photos Terry took were out focus. 9. Why don‘t we meet up here again on the 12th, when I get back from Germany? 10. The prime minister has come with fire during this  election campaign for being slow to respond to events. 

11. Keep plodding along and you‘ll finish your novel eventually. 

III. READING 

Part 1. Read the following passage and decide which answer best fits each gap. The issues for (1) economies are a little more straightforward. The desire to build on undeveloped land is not (2) out of desperation or necessity, but is a result of the relentless march of progress. Cheap labour and a relatively highly-skilled workforce make these countries highly competitive and there is a flood of inward investment, particularly from (3) looking to take advantage of the low wages before the cost and standard of living begin to rise. It is factors such as these that are making many Asian economies extremely attractive when viewed as investment opportunities at the moment. Similarly, in Africa, the relative (4) of precious metals and natural resources tends to attract a lot of (5) companies and a whole sub-industry develops around and is completely dependent on this foreign-direct investment. It is understandable that countries that are the focus of this sort of attention can lose sight of the environmental implications of large-scale industrial

development, and this can have devastating consequences for the natural world. And it is a (6) cycle because the more industrially active a nation becomes, the greater the demand for and harvesting of natural resources. For some, the environmental issues, though they can hardly be ignored, are viewed as a (7) concern. Indeed, having an environmental conscience or taking environmental matters into consideration when it comes to decisions on whether or not to build rubber-tree (8) or grow biofuel crops would be quite (9) indeed. For those involved in such schemes it is a pretty black- and white issue. And, for vast (10) of land in Latin America, for example, it is clear that the welfare of the rainforests matters little to local government when vast sums of money can be made from cultivating the land. 

1. A. emerging B. emergent C. convergent D. resurgent 2. A. grown B. born C. bred D. arisen 3. A. multinationals B. migrants C. continentals D. intercontinentals 4. A. premonition B. abundance C. amplitude D. accumulation 5. A. exploitation B. exploration C. surveyance D. research 6. A. vacuous B. viscous C. vexatious D. vicious 7. A. parallel B. extrinsic C. peripheral D. exponential 8. A. plantations B. homesteads C. ranches D. holdings 9. A. proscriptive B. prohibitive C. prospective D. imperative 10. A. regions B. plots C. tracts D. sectors 

Part 2. Use only one word in each gap. 

Despite the continued resilience of those early town perks, it wasn‘t until the Depression that modern Hershey started to take (1) shape _. Perhaps the only town in the country actually to prosper during the 1930s, it thrived because Hershey vowed his Utopia would never be on the (2)  breadline . Instead he funded a massive building boom that gave (3) rise to the most visited buildings in today's Hershey and delivered wages to more than 600 workers. He admitted that his (4)  intentions were partly selfish: If I don‘t provide work for them, I‘ll have to feed them. And since building materials are now at their lowest cost levels, I‘m going to build and give them jobs.‖ He seems to have spared no (5) expense ; most of the new buildings were strikingly opulent. The first to be finished was the three-million-dollar limestone Community Centre, home to the 1,904-seat Venetian- style Hershey Community Theatre, which has played (6) host  

 since 1933 to touring Broadway shows and to music, dance, and opera performances. It offers just as much to look at when the lights are on and the curtains closed. The floors in the aptly (7)  named Grand Lobby are polished Italian lava rock, surrounded by marble walls and capped with a bas-relief ceiling showing (8) sheaves of wheat, beehives, swans, and scenes from Roman mythology. With dazzling inner foyer, Hershey (9) 

 thumbed his nose even harder at the ravages of the Depression: The arched ceiling is tiled in gold, the fire curtain bears a painting of Venice, and the ceiling is studded with 88 tiny lightbulbs to re-create a star-(10) lit night. 

Part 3. Read the following passage and choose the best answer. 

CLOUD SEEDING 

Precipitation is essential for any type of farming, and since the development of agriculture man has attempted to gain influence over or to control this life-giving phenomenon. For much of human history, such efforts have been the province of shamans, witch doctors, and priests, who have sought to enlist the aid of the supernatural in bringing steady and reliable rains during the growing season. In fact, in many earlier societies, the great authority afforded to such individuals was explicitly based on their claims to supposedly command the rains to come. In modern times, most societies have turned away

from such superstitions. Rain-making efforts continue today, albeit under the guise of science. Modern rain-making efforts centre around the practice of cloud seeding, in which certain chemicals (usually silver iodide) are released into the atmosphere to induce precipitation. In order to understand this process, it is first necessary to understand what causes precipitation under natural circumstances. 

Precipitation requires two processes to take place inside a cloud: condensation and coalescence. Condensation occurs when the air in a cloud cools beyond a certain point. Clouds are essentially masses of air saturated with water vapour, and the amount of water vapour that the air can hold is a function of temperature. Warmer air can hold more water vapour, while cooler air can hold less. Thus, when a mass of warm air cools, either as a result of a collision with a cooler mass of air or through some other process, its ability to hold water vapour decreases. When this ability drops below the amount of water vapour the cloud actually holds, the cloud is said to be supersaturated. At this point, the water vapour will begin to condense into tiny microscopic droplets. 

While the supersaturation of the cloud marks the point at which water droplets begin to form, it does not always result in precipitation. These initial water droplets are so small that the force of air resistance and upward breaths of wind are sufficient to keep them suspended within the cloud. It is when these water droplets begin to combine into larger water drops or freeze in to ice crystals, a process known as coalescence, that they gain enough mass to fall as either rain or snow. In order to coalesce, however, these water droplets must first have something to coalesce around. Typically, this is a microscopic particle of dirt or dust that has been blown up into a cloud. Without the presence of such particles, precipitation is nearly impossible. In fact, in clouds without these particles, condensed water droplets may even drop below the freezing point without coalescing into raindrops or snowflakes. 

It is precisely these conditions which cloud seeding seeks to exploit. In cloud seeding, super-fine particles of silver iodide are released into a cloud in an attempt to initiate coalescence and thus produce precipitation. The silver iodide is typically delivered via a ground-launched rocket or a plane that has been specially outfitted with cloud-seeding equipment. In either case, the process is the same. If successful, the water droplets will coalesce around the particles of silver iodide and fall as either rain or snow, depending on temperatures closer to the ground. 

While cloud seeding works in theory, its real-world efficacy is more open to debate. There are undeniably cases in which cloud seeding does produce precipitation. However, it is often impossible to tell whether greater amounts of precipitation occur with the aid of cloud seeding than would have occurred naturally. Moreover, cloud seeding can only work when cloud conditions are already ripe for precipitation; that is, when a cloud is already supersaturated. In instances when this is not the case, cloud seeding is powerless to produce rain. Cloud seeding, for example, may initiate rainfall in temperate climates, but it would be a futile practice in desert regions. Another drawback is that cloud seeding naturally results in rainfalls laden with silver iodide, which can be toxic to vegetation and wildlife in high enough concentrations. Despite these limitations, cloud seeding is a growing practice worldwide. Currently, 24 nations, including the United States, China, Russia, and Australia, have active cloud seeding programs. Some of these nations have begun to experiment with materials other than silver iodide in their programs, hoping to find a method of cloud seeding that is more environmentally friendly. 

1. The word provincein the passage is closest in meaning to

A. authority B. jurisdiction C. realm D. specialty 

2. In paragraph 1, why does the author allude to kahunas, healers and clerics? 

A. To belabour the point that rain in religious rituals is of great import 

B. To elucidate the futility of all rain-making endeavours 

C. To illustrate the dearth of empirical erudition amidst primitive civilisations

D. To yield a celebrated background for rainmaking ventures 

3. Based on the information in paragraph 2, condensation can best be designated as . A. the amalgam of minuscule water droplets 

B. the diminution of air temperatures inside a cloud 

C. the genesis of water droplets from water vapour 

D. the resistance of water vapour to supersaturation 

4. What is required for coalescence to transpire? 

A. Air temperatures must depreciate to a critical level. 

B. The aggregate of water vapour in a cloud must exceed a certain point. 

C. Water droplets must become sufficiently dense to overcome air resistance. 

D. Water droplets must have something on which to affix themselves. 

5. According to paragraph 4, the mantle of silver iodide in cloud seeding is to . A. augment the amount of water vapour in the cloud 

B. diminish the inclusive air temperature in the cloud 

C. expedite coalescence D. facilitate condensation 

6. The word efficacyin the paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to

A, prevalence B. reliability C. sanctuary D. usefulness 7. Based on paragraph 5, what can be inferred about cloud seeding? 

A. Cloud seeding actually precipitates very little environmental desecration. 

B. Cloud seeding does not always work. 

C. Cloud seeding methods have never been appraised. 

D. The overheads of cloud seeding are exorbitant to be viable. 

8. Why are nations looking for auxiliary constituents to manoeuvre in cloud seeding? A. Silver iodide introduces poisons into the environment. 

B. Silver iodide wields extortionate delivery modi operandi like projectiles and airplanes. C. The availability of silver iodide is extremely limited. 

D. They hanker after a more effective component than silver iodide. 

9. Which of the sentences below best conveys the intrinsic information in the highlighted sentence in  the passage? 

A. In primeval societies, only puissant individuals (ecclesiastics) had the prerogative to command the  rains. 

B. In primitive civilisations, authority epitomes dodged explicit assertions about constraining the rains. C. The formidable stature of religious epitomes in primitive civilisations was primarily due to their  allegations to restrain the rain. 

D. The greatness of primeval societies was grounded in the adroitness of ethereal leaders to create rain. 10. The phrase upward breathsin the passage can be replaced by

A. upbraids B. updraughts C. upheavals D. uprisings 

Part 4. Read the following passage and choose the most suitable from A to G on the list and write it  in each gap from 1 to 5 and from the gap 6 to 10 complete the notes. 

DOES GLOBALIZATION HELP THE POOR? 

A. In recent years, we have heard steady proclamations emanating from the advocates of economic globalization and leaders of the world‘s leading financial institutions - the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Trade Organization (WTO), etc. - that the ultimate purpose in pushing economic globalization is to help the world‘s poor. More specifically, they contend that removing barriers to corporate trade and financial investments is the best path to growth, which they claim offers the best chance of rescuing the poor from poverty. They also assert that the millions

of people who oppose the economic globalization model are harming the interests of the poor. They should back off and leave it to corporations, bankers and global bureaucracies to do the planning and solve the world‘s problems. Such claims are routinely replayed in the media. One prominent national columnist writes, 'Protesters are choking the only route out of poverty for the world‘s poor.‘ In other words, if the protesting stopped, the financial institutions would save the day. Is this believable? Is it the salvation of the poor that really drives global corporations or are their primary motives quite different? 

B. Almost all the evidence from the most robust period of economic globalization - 1970 to the end of the 20th century — shows that its outcome is the exact opposite of what its supporters claim. Interestingly, this evidence now comes as much from the proponents of globalization as from its opponents. Clearly, poverty and inequality are rapidly accelerating everywhere on Earth. A 1999 report by the United Nations Development Program found that inequalities between rich and poor within and among countries are quickly expanding, and that the global trading and finance system is a primary cause. Even the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) confirms the United Nations‘ (UN) conclusions, agreeing that globalization brings massive inequalities. The benefits of globalization do not reach the poor,‖ says the CIA, 'and the process inevitably results in increased unrest and protest.‘ 

C. The ideologies and rules of economic globalization - including free trade, deregulation and privatization - have destroyed the livelihoods of millions of people, often leaving them homeless, landless and hungry, while removing their access to the most basic public services like health and medical care, education, sanitation, fresh water and public transport. The records show that economic globalization makes things worse for the poor, not better. Economic globalization has actually succeeded in making global corporations and a few elites wildly wealthy. Of the largest 100 economies m the world, 52 are corporations. This is what the UN describes as the ‗staggering concentration of wealth among the ultra-wealthy‘. 

D. Contrary to claims, wealth generated by globalization does not trickle down. Rather, the wealth is locked at the top, removing from governments and communities the very tools necessary to redistribute it, and in doing so protect domestic industries, social services, the environment and sustainable livelihoods. There may be isolated instances where temporary improvement has been achieved in Third World countries, and, of course, the financial institutions love to trumpet these. The truth, however, is that benefit has been very short-lived and the majority of it has gone to the elites in these countries and to the chief executives of the global corporations at the hub of the process. 

E. People may point to the ‗Asian Tiger‘ economies like Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore as examples of the success of globalization, but the truth is that improvement has not been achieved by assiduously adhering to the dictates of international financial advisors. These economies initially resisted the prescribed economic model, and managed to stay free of the volatility of export markets. When they did finally succumb to pressure from the IMF and the World Bank, they found their glory days quickly disappearing into the infamous Asian financial crisis of the late 90s. 

F. The majority of poor countries have not enjoyed much benefit from globalization, and a growing number of people understand that the system is selling a false promise. The policies of the financial institutions are not designed to benefit them, but to benefit rich industrial countries and their global corporations. The question then is: Do these globalizing institutions know what they‘re doing or do they just mindly follow a failed ideological model?‖ Many commentators fiercely opposed to globalization now firmly believe that the institutions do indeed know exactly what they're doing and that they always have. They have an assignment to remove all obstacles to the free flow of capital as they seek to pry open the world‘s last natural resource pools, markets and cheap labour.To suggest they

do all this to help the poor is high cynicism. 

G. Perhaps the most traumatic impact of globalization has resulted from local economies being forced to shift from a small-scale diversified agricultural model towards the industrial export model. Half the world's population still lives directly on the land, growing food for their communities. They grow staples and a mix of diverse crops, and they replant with indigenous seed varieties developed over centuries. They have perfected their own fertilization and pesticide management. Such systems have sustained hundreds of millions of people for millennia. 

Global corporations must resist local self-sufficiency. Profit is generated by increased processing activity and global trading. We have seen companies spend millions of dollars on publicity professing that small farmers are not productive enough to feed the hungry world. This publicity runs in tandem with the investment and trade strategies of the same companies - strategies that aim to replace local, diverse farming for self-reliance with monocultures. The people who once grew their crops are driven off their land. People who once fed themselves become landless, homeless, jobless and hungry. Dependency and starvation replace self-sufficient livelihoods and self-reliant nations, while global corporations maintain their wealth by shipping luxury items thousands of miles to already overfed markets. Clearly, these corporations are not concerned about feeding the hungry. They are concerned about feeding themselves. 

The passage has seven sections labelled A-G. For questions 1-5, choose the correct heading for each  section from the list of headings in the box. You do not need to use all the headings. I. Initial gains - ultimate disaster 

II. A stark contrast between the poor and the super-rich. 

III. The obliteration of traditional practices 

IV. The poor must take some responsibility 

V. Boasts about small victories are misplaced 

VI. We know best. Don't try to stop us. 

VII. Markets yet to be exploited 

VIII. Incompetence or a well planned strategy? 

IX Parties on both sides can see the short-comings 

X. Asia leads the way 

Example: Paragraph B: IX 

Paragraph G: III 

1. Paragraph A :vi 

2. Paragraph C :ii 

3. Paragraph D :v 

4. Paragraph E :i 

5. Paragraph F :vii 

For questions 6-10, complete the notes. Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. Globalization – two sides of the coin 

Advocates say: 

Growth realized only by (6) removing barriers to business 

Hope of salvation thwarted by (7) protestors  

Opponents say: 

(8) Advocates of the system equally sceptical  

Millions destitute without essential (9) public services  

(10) Corporations now wealthier than some countries

IV. WRITING 

Part 1. Describing the table. 

The table below shows the percentage use of four different fuel types to generate electricity in five European countries in 2001. Write at least 150 words to describe it. 




Nuclear Coal & lignite Petroleum products Hydro & wind 


Other

Germany 

29 

50 

13

Britain 

23 

34 

39

Italy 

11 

27 

20 

42

Sweden 

45 

49 

44

Belgium 

58 

12 

26



Part 2. Summary 

Read the following paragraph carefully. Use your own words to summarize it. You MUST NOT copy the original. 

Let children learn to judge their own work. A child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time: if corrected too much, he will stop talking. He notices a thousand times a day the difference between the language he uses and the language those around him use. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people‘s. In the same way, children learning to do all the other things they learn to do without being taught – to walk, run, climb, whistle, ride a bicycle – compare their own performances with those of more skilled people, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance to find out his mistakes for himself, let alone correct them. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought that he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him, or correct it unless he was made to. Soon he becomes dependent on the teacher. Let him do it himself. Let him work out, with the help of other children if he wants it, what this word says, what the answer is to that problem, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or not. 

If it is a matter of right answers, as it may be in mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time on such routine work? Our job should be to help the child when he tells us that he can‘t find the way to get the right answer. Let‘s end all this nonsense of grades, exams, marks. Let us throw them all out, and let the children learn what all educated persons must some days learn, how to measure their own understanding, how to know what they know or do not know. 

Let them get on with this job in the way that seems most sensible to them, with our help as school teachers if they ask for it. The idea that there is a body of knowledge to be learnt at school and used for the rest of one‘s life is nonsense in a world as complicated and rapidly changing as ours. Anxious parents and teachers say, ‗But suppose they fail to learn something essential, something they will need to get on in the world?‘ Don‘t worry! If it is essential, they will go out into the world and learn it. 

Part 3. Essay 

Some people think that modern games can help children develop a wide range of skills, but others  argue that traditional games can be much better for developing such skills. What is your opinion? Write an essay of about 350 words to express your view. Use specific reasons and examples to  support your answer. 

PRACTICE TEST 5

I. LISTENING 

Part 1. Listen and complete the note with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/ OR A  NUMBER. 

Rented Properties Customer’s Requirement 

Name: Steven Godfrey 

No. of bedrooms: four 

Preferred location: in the (1)