READING BỒI DƯỠNG HỌC SINH GIỎI, CHUYÊN ANH NĂM HỌC 2022-2023 KHÓ

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READING SKILL 1: UNDERSTAND VOCABULARY FROM CONTEXT 

QUESTIONS ABOUT VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION 

The word (or phrase) XXX is closest in meaning to … The word (or phrase) XXX could be best replaced by …

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER 

In the context surrounding the word or phrase

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

1. Find the word or phrase in the passage 

2. Read the sentence carefully 

3. Look for context clues 

4. Choose the answer



READING EXERCISE 1: 

Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-5) 

Smog 

1 The oxidation of exhaust gases is one of the primary sources of the world's pollution. The brown haze that is poised over some of the world's largest cities is properly called photochemical smog; it results from chemical reactions that take place in the air, using the energy of sunlight. The production of smog begins when gases are created in the cylinders of vehicle engines. It is there that oxygen and nitrogen gas combine as the fuel burns to form nitric oxide (NO), a colorless gas. The nitric oxide is forced out into the air through the vehicle tailpipe along with other gases. 

2 When the gas reaches the air, it comes into contact with available oxygen from the atmosphere and combines with the oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide (N02), which is a gas with a brownish hue. This nitrogen dioxide plays a role in the formation of acid rain in wetter or more humid climates and tends to decompose back into nitric oxide as it releases an oxygen atom from each molecule; the released oxygen atoms quickly combine with oxygen (02) molecules to form ozone (03), The brownish colored nitrogen dioxide is partially responsible for the brown color in smoggy air; the ozone is the toxic substance that causes irritation to eyes. 

1. The word poised in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to 

A. Interacting B. Sitting C. Blowing D. Poisoning 

2. The phrase take place in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to  

A. position themselves B. put C. are seated D. occur 

3. The word forced in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by 

A. obliged B. required C. pushed D. commanded 

4. The word hue in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. color B. odor C. thickness D. smoke 

5. The phrase plays a role in in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. makes fun of B. serves a function in C. acts the part of D. moves about in 1

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 6-10) 

Autism 

Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by severe behavioral abnormalities across all primary areas of functioning. Its onset is often early; it generally makes itself known by the age of two and one-half. It is not a single disease entity but is instead a syndrome defined by patterns and characteristics of behavior; it, therefore, most likely has multiple etiologies rather than a causative factor. Autism is not fully understood and thus is controversial with respect to diagnosis, etiology, and treatment strategies. 

6. The word primary in the passage could best be replaced by 

A. elementary B. main C. introductory D. primitive 

7. The word onset in the passage is closest in meaning to  

A. placement B. arrangement C. support D. beginning 8. The word syndrome in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. concurrent set of symptoms B. feeling of euphoria C. mental breakdown D. repetitive task

9. The word etiologies in the passage is closest in meaning to 

A. symptoms B. patterns C. causes D. onsets 

10. The phrase with respect to in the passage could best be replaced by 

A. with dignity toward B. in regard to C. irrespective of D. out of politeness for 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 11-15) 

Parasitic Plants 

1 Parasitic plants are plants that survive by using food produced by host plants rather than by producing their own food from the Sun's energy. Because they do not need sunlight to survive, parasitic plants are generally found in umbrageous areas rather than in areas exposed to direct sunlight. Parasitic plants attach themselves to host plants, often to the stems or roots, by means of haustoria, which the parasite uses to make its way into the food channels of the host plant and absorb the nutrients that it needs to survive from the host plant. 

2. The world's heaviest flower, a species of rafflesia, is a parasite that flourishes among, and lives off of, the roots of jungle vines. Each of these ponderous blooms can weigh up to 15 pounds (7 kg) and can measure up to 3 feet (1 m) across

11. The word umbrageous in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to 

A. moist B. well lit C. shaded D. buried 12. Haustoria in paragraph 1 are most likely 

A. offshoots from the parasite B. seeds of the host plant 

C. fruits from the host plant D. food for the parasite 

13. The phrase make its way into in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to 

A. develop B. penetrate C. outline D. eat 

14. The word ponderous in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. smelly B. hidden C. mature D. heavy 

15. The word across in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by 

A. in diameter B. on the other side C. at a distance D. inside and out 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 16-24) 

Edna Ferber 

1 Edna Ferber (1887-1968) was a popular American novelist in the first half of the twentieth century. She embarked on her career by working as a newspaper reporter in Wisconsin and soon began writing novels. Her first novel, Dawn O'Hara, the Girl Who Laughed, was published in 1911, when she was only twenty-four years old. 

2 Her big break came with the novel So Big (1924), which was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in Literature. The main conflict in the novel is between a mother who places a high value on hard work and honor and a son who repudiates his mother's values, instead preferring the easier path to fortune and celebrity. Like many of Ferber's novels, this novel features a tenacious female protagonist with strong character who struggles to deal with ethical dilemmas about the importance of status and money. 

3 Probably the best known of Ferber's novels was Show Boat (1926), which tells the story of a Southern woman married to a charismatic but irresponsible man who leaves her with a daughter must take great pains to support. In 1927, the novel was made into a musical that has endured to the present. 4 Other well-known novels by Ferber include Cimarron (1930) and Giant (1952), both of which were made into movies. These were epic novels about the settlement and growth of the West, centering on strong female lead characters who marry men lacking the same strength of character. 

16. The phrase embarked on in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to 

A. took a trip to B. started out on 

C. improved upon D. had an opinion about 

17. The word break in paragraph 2 could best be replaced 

A. rupture B. revelation C. opportunity D. rest 

18. The word places in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by 

A. locates B. puts C. recites D. positions

19. The word repudiates in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. refuses to accept B. lives up to 

C. tries to understand D. makes the best of 

20. The word protagonist in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. arch enemy B. voracious reader 

C. skilled worker D. lead character 

21. The phrase take great pains in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to 

A. work diligently B. recognize hurtfully 

C. accept unequivocally D. hurt agonizingly 

22. The word endured in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to 

A. lasted B. tested C. waited D. limited 23. The word epic in paragraph 4 could best be replaced by 

A. lengthy narrative B. detailed non-fictional 

C. emotionally romantic D. rousing Western 

24. The phrase centering on in paragraph 4 could be replaced by 

A. circling around B. pointing to C. focusing on D. arranging for READING SKILL 2: RECOGNIZE REFERENTS 

QUESTIONS ABOUT REFERENTS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION 

The word XXX refers to …

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER 

The pronoun or adjective is highlighted in the passage. The referent  is generally in front of the highlighted word.

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

1. Locate the highlighted pronoun or adjective 

2. Look BEFORE the highlighted word for nouns that agree with the  highlighted word 

3. Try each of the nouns in the context around the highlighted word 4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers, and choose the best  answer from the remaining choices



READING EXERCISE 2: 

Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-4) 

Animal Congregation 

Many types of animals combine the advantages of family association with those conferred by membership in still larger groups. Bees congregate in hives; some fish move in schools; ants gather in mounds; wolves live in packs; deer associate in herds. The main advantage of membership in a mass community is the safety that it provides. A large group of prey may be easier for a predator to find at any given point than is a small one, a predator may think twice before taking on such a group; if a predator does decide to challenge a large group, it may merely encounter a confusing mass of moving bodies and possibly may not succeed in its primary goal. 

1. The word those in the passage refers to 

A. types B. animals C. advantages D. groups 

2. The word it in line 4 refers to  

A. advantage B. membership C. community D. safety 

3. The word one in the passage refers to 

A. group B. prey C. predator D. point 

4. The word it in line 6 refers to 

A. predator B. group C. mass D. goal 

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-9) 

Chromium Compounds 

1 Most chromium compounds have brightly colored hues, and as a result they are widely used as

coloring agents, or pigments, in paints. In addition to having a pleasing color, a paint must protect the surface to which it is applied and be easy to apply in a thin, uniform coat. 

2 All paints consist of two parts. One is a powder of solid particles that is the source of the color and the opaqueness and is known as the pigment. The other, called the binder, is the liquid into which pigment is blended. The binder used in some paints is made from oily solvents such as those derived from petroleum resources. When applied, these solvents evaporate, leaving deposits of pigment on the surface. 

5. The word they in paragraph 1 refers to  

A. chromium compounds 

B. brightly colored hues 

6. The word it in paragraph 1 refers to 

C. coloring agents D. pigments 


A. a pleasing color B. a paint C. the surface D. a thin, uniform coat 

7. The word that in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. a powder B. solid particles C. the source D. the color 

8. The word which in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. powder B. paint C. liquid D. pigment 

9. The word those in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. some paints B. oily solvents C. petroleum resources D. deposits of pigment 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 10-13) 

New World Epidemics 

A huge loss of life resulted from the introduction of Old World diseases into the Americas in the early sixteenth century. The inhabitants of the Americas were separated from Asia, Africa, and Europe by rising oceans following the Ice Ages, and, as a result, they were isolated by means of this watery barrier from numerous virulent epidemic diseases that had developed across the ocean, such as measles, smallpox, pneumonia, and malaria. Pre-Columbian Americans had a relatively disease-free environment but also lacked the antibodies needed to protect them from bacteria and viruses brought to America by European explorers and colonists. A devastating outbreak of disease that strikes for the first time against a completely unprotected population is known as a virgin soil epidemic. Virgin soil epidemics contributed to an unbelievable decline in the population of native inhabitants of the Americas, one that has been estimated at as much as an 80 percent decrease of the native population the centuries following the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. 

10. The word they in the passage refers to 

A. the inhabitants B. epidemic diseases C. rising oceans D. the Ice Ages 11. The word that in the passage refers to 

A. a disease-free environment 

B. this watery barrier 

12. The word them in the passage refers to A. pre-Columbian Americans 

B. the antibodies 

13. The word one in the passage refers to A. a virgin soil epidemic 

B. an unbelievable decline 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 14-18) 

C. virulent epidemic diseases 

D. the ocean 

C. bacteria and viruses 

D. European explorers and colonists 

C. the population of native inhabitants 

D. the arrival of Europeans 

Horatio Alger, Jr. 

1 Horatio Alger, Jr. (1832-1899) was the author of more than 100 books for boys in the second half of the nineteenth century that focused on the theme of success coming to those who work hard to achieve it. The son of a minister, Alger came from a prominent Massachusetts family. He graduated with honors from Harvard in 1852 and graduated from the Cambridge Divinity School eight years later. He served as a minister for a short time before moving to New York City in 1866 to devote his time to writing inspirational books for boys. 

2 In many of his books, he wrote about the poor and homeless children of the slums of New York City,

seeing them as unfortunate pawns of society who, if only given the opportunity, could improve their lot. A general plotline that he followed often was of a poor boy who managed to achieve a respectable and successful life by working hard and taking advantage of opportunities presented. Though his writing style was characterized by simplicity and repetition, it was well received by his target audience; his books were enormously popular, selling millions of copies well into the first few decades of the twentieth century. 

14. The word that in paragraph 1 refers to 

A. author B. books C. boys D. half 

15. The word it in paragraph 1 refers to 

A. the second half B. the nineteenth century C. 100 D. Success 

16. The word them in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. Books B. Children C. Slums D. Pawns 17. The word who in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. Slums B. Society C. Pawns D. Opportunity 

18. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. Style B. Simplicity C. Repetition D. Audience READING EXERCISE (Skills 1-2): Read the passage. 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 14-18) 

Coral Colonies 

1 Coral colonies require a series of complicated events and circumstances to develop into the characteristically intricate reef structures for which they are known. These events and circumstances involve physical and chemical processes as well as delicate interactions among various animals and plants for coral colonies to thrive. 

2 The basic element in the development of coralline reef structures is a group of animals from the Anthozoa class, called stony corals, that is closely related to jellyfish and sea anemones. These small polyps (the individual animals that make up the coral reef), which are for the most part only a fraction of an inch in length, live in colonies made up of an immeasurable number of polyps clustered together. Each individual polyp obtains calcium from the seawater where it lives to create a skeleton around the lower part of its body, and the polyps attach themselves both to the living tissue and to the external skeletons of other polyps. Many polyps tend to retreat inside of their skeletons during hours of daylight and then stretch partially outside of their skeletons during hours of darkness to feed on minute plankton from the water around them. The mouth at the top of each body is surrounded by rings of tentacles used to grab onto food, and these rings of tentacles make the polyps look like flowers with rings of clustered petals; because of this, biologists for years thought that corals were plants rather than animals. 

3 Once these coralline structures are established, they reproduce very quickly. They build in upward and outward directions to create a fringe of living coral surrounding the skeletal remnants of once-living coral. That coralline structures are commonplace in tropical waters around the world is due to the fact that they reproduce so quickly rather than the fact that they are hardy life-forms easily able to withstand external forces of nature. They cannot survive in water that is too dirty, and they need water that is at least 72° F (or 22° C) to exist, so they are formed only in waters ranging from 30° north to 30° south of the equator. They need a significant amount of sunlight, so they live only within an area between the surface of the ocean and a few meters beneath it. In addition, they require specific types of microscopic algae for their existence, and their skeletal shells are delicate in nature and are easily damaged or fragmented. They are also prey to other sea animals such as sponges and dams that bore into their skeletal structures and weaken them

4 Coral colonies cannot build reef structures without considerable assistance. The many openings in and among the skeletons must be filled in and cemented together by material from around the colonies. The filling material often consists of fine sediments created either from the borings and waste of other animals around the coral or from the skeletons, shells, and remnants of dead plants and animals. The material that is used to cement the coral reefs comes from algae and other microscopic forms of seaweed. 

5 An additional part of the process of reef formation is the ongoing compaction and cementation that occurs throughout the process. Because of the soluble and delicate nature of the material from which coral is created, the relatively unstable crystals of corals and shells break down over time and are then rearranged as a more stable form of limestone. 

6 The coralline structures that are created through these complicated processes are extremely variable in form. They may, for example, be treelike and branching, or they may have more rounded and compact shapes. What they share in common, however, is the extraordinary variety of plant and animal life-forms that are a necessary part of the ongoing process of their formation. 

GLOSSARY 

Polyps: simple sea animals with tube-shaped bodies

Questions 

1. The word they in paragraph 1 refers to A. coral colonies 

B. events and circumstances 

2. The word that in paragraph 2 refers to A. the basic element 

B. the development of coralline reef structures 

C. intricate reef structures D. chemical processes 

C. a group of animals 

D. the Anthozoa class 

3. The phrase an immeasurable number in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. an exact integer B. a huge quantity 

C. a surprising total D. a changing sum 

4. The word minute in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by 

A. tiny B. light C. timely D. soft 

5. The phrase once-living in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to 

A. aging B. dead C. growing D. solitary 

6. The word hardy in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to 

A. difficult B. fragile C. scarce D. rugged 7. The word They in paragraph 3 refers to 

A. coralline structures 

B. upward and outward directions 8. The word them in paragraph 3 refers to

C. skeletal remnants D. external forces of nature 

A. sea animals B. sponges and 

clams 

C. skeletal 

structures 

D. many openings

9. The word borings in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to A. dull pieces 

B. strange creations 

C. living beings 

D. powdery remnants 

10. The word ongoing in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to 

A. mobile B. continuous C. increasing D. periodic 

11. The phrase break down in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to 

A. cease functioning B. interrupt C. descend D. decompose 

12. The word that in paragraph 6 refers to 

A. variety B. life-forms C. part D. process 13. The word their in paragraph 6 refers to 

A. coralline structures 

B. complicated processes 

READING SKILL 3: SIMPLIFY MEANINGS OF SENTENCES 

C. rounded and more compact shapes D. plant and animal life-forms 


QUESTIONS ABOUT SIMPLIFYING THE MEANINGS OF SENTENCES

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE  

QUESTION 

Which of the sentences below best express the essential information…?

WHERE TO FIND THE  

ANSWER

The targeted sentence is highlighted in the passage. Information to answer  the question is in the highlighted sentence and may also be in the context  around the highlighted sentence 

HOW TO ANSWER THE  

QUESTION

1. Study the highlighted sentence carefully 

2. Break the sentence down into meaningful parts by looking for  pronunciation and transition expresses 

3. If the highlighted sentence makes references to information outside of  the highlighted sentence, read the context around the highlighted  sentence 

4. Study the answer choice, and eliminate definitely wrong answers 5. Choose the best answer from the remaining choices



READING EXERCISE 3: Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) 

Camouflage 

Camouflage is one of the most effective ways for animals to avoid attack in the treeless Arctic. However, the summer and winter landscapes there are so diverse that a single protective coloring scheme would, of course, prove ineffective in one season or the other. Thus, many of the inhabitants of the Arctic tundra change their camouflage twice a year. The arctic fox is a clear-cut example of the phenomenon; it sports a brownish-gray coat in the summer which then turns white as cold weather sets in, and the process reverses itself in the springtime. Its brownish-gray coat blends in with the barren tundra landscape in the months without snow, and the white coat naturally blends in with the landscape of the frozen wintertime tundra. 

1. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Opposite conditions in summer and in winter necessitate different protective coloration for Arctic animals. 

B. The coloration of the summer and winter landscapes in the Arctic fails to protect the Arctic tundra. C. In a single season, protective coloring schemes are ineffective in the treeless Arctic. D. For many animals, a single protective coloring scheme effectively protects them during summer and winter months. 

2. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. The arctic fox is unusual in that the color of its coat changes for no reason. 

B. The arctic fox lives in an environment that is brownish gray in the summer and white in the winter. C. It is a phenomenon that the coat of the arctic fox turns white in the springtime and gray in the fall. D. The arctic fox demonstrates that protective coloration can change during different seasons. 

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-6) 

Post-it® Notes 

1 Post-it@ Notes were invented in the 1970s at the 3M company in Minnesota quite by accident. Researchers at 3M were working on developing different types of adhesives, and one particularly weak adhesive, a compound of acrylate copolymer microspheres, was developed. Employees at 3M were asked if they could think of a use for a weak adhesive which, provided it did not get dirty, could be reused. One suggestion was that it could be applied to a piece of paper to use as a bookmark that would stay in place in a book. Another use was found when the product was attached to a report that was to be sent to a colleague with a request for comments on the report; the colleague made his comments on the paper attached to the report and returned the report. The idea for Post-it Notes was born. 

2 It was decided within the company that there would be a test launch of the product in 1977 in four American cities. Sales of this innovative product in test cities were less than stellar, most likely because the product, while innovative, was also quite unfamiliar. A final attempt was then made in the city of Boise to introduce the product. In this attempt, 3M salesmen gave demonstrations of the product in offices throughout Boise and gave away free samples of the product. When the salesmen returned a week later to the offices where the product had been demonstrated and given away, a huge percentage of the office workers, having noted how useful the simple little product could be, were interested in purchasing it. Over time, 3M came to understand the huge potential of this new product, and over the next few decades more than 400 varieties of Post-it products – in different colors, shapes, and sizes – have been developed. 

3. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Of the many adhesives that were being developed at 3M, one was not a particularly strong adhesive. B. Researchers at 3M spent many years trying to develop a really weak adhesive. C. Numerous weak adhesives resulted from a program to develop the strongest adhesive of all. D. Researchers were assigned to develop different types of uses for acrylate copolymer microspheres. 

4. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. The 3M company suggested applying for a patent on the product in a report prepared by a colleague. B. One unexpectedly-discovered use for the adhesive was in sending and receiving notes attached to documents. 

C. A note was attached to a report asking for suggestions for uses of one of 3M's products. D. A colleague who developed the new product kept notes with suggestions by other workers. 

5. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. The 3M company was unfamiliar with the process of using test cities to introduce innovative products. B. Sales of the product soared even though the product was quite unfamiliar to most customers. C. The new product did not sell well because potential customers did not understand it. D. After selling the product for a while, the company understood that the product was not innovative enough. 

6. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. The company immediately understood the potential of the product and began to develop it further. B. The company worked overtime to develop its new product, initially creating numerous varieties to make it successful. 

C. The company initially introduced 400 varieties of the product and then watched for decades as sales improved. 

D. It took some time for the company to understand how important its new product was and how many variations were possible. 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 7-10) 

The Pulitzer Prize 

1 The Pulitzer Prize came about as part of an attempt by newspaperman Joseph Pulitzer to upgrade the profession of journalism. Pulitzer, the owner of the New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, made a proposal in 1903 to Columbia University to make a $ 2 million bequest to the university for the dual purposes of establishing a school of journalism at the university and also

establishing prizes for exceptional work in journalism and other fields. However, the university did not initially respond as one might expect to such a seemingly generous offer. 

2 Interestingly, Colombia University was not immediately amenable to the proposal by Pulitzer inasmuch as journalism was not held in high regard in general and Pulitzer’s papers were more known for their sensationalization of the news than for the high quality of the journalism. The trustees of the university were not at all sure that they wanted a school of journalism because newspaper reporting was considered more of a trade than a profession at the time and they did not want to decrease the academic prestige of their institution. It took years of discussions and negotiations before the terms for the establishment of the school of journalism and the prizes bearing Pulitzer’s name were agreed upon, and it was not actually until the year after Pulitzer’s death in 1911 that construction began on the building to house Columbia’s new school of journalism. The school of journalism opened in 1913, and the first prizes were awarded in 1917, for work done the previous year. 

3 The method for selecting Pulitzer Prize winners and the categories for prizes have changed slightly over the years. Today, 21 different awards are given in three different areas, with he majority of awards going to journalists; 14 of the 21 awards are from various aspects of journalism (i.e., news reporting, feature writing, cartoons, and photography), 6 awards are given in letters (in fiction, nonfiction, history, drama, poetry, and biography), and 1 award in music. Columbia University appoints nominating juries comprised of experts in each field, and the nominating juries submit these nominations for each category to the Pulitzer Prize Board, which makes the final decisions and awards the prizes. 

7. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Joseph Pulitzer generously offered to donate a large sum of money to Columbia University for two specific purposes. 

B. In 1903, an attempt was made by Joseph Pulitzer to halt the movement of the school of journalism and the journalism prizes from Columbia University. 

C. Joseph Pulitzer requested that Columbia University donate a large sum of money to the New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch for the purpose of establishing journalism scholarships and prizes. 

D. In 1993, Joseph Pulitzer decided to give up his position as head of two newspapers to take over the department of journalism at Columbia University. 

8. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. The university immediately appreciated Pulitzer's proposal, agreeing completely with Pulitzer as to the need for high-quality journalism. 

B. University officials were unhappy when they read a sensationalized version of Pulitzer's proposal in one of Pulitzer's newspapers. 

C. Initially, the university was not interested in working with Pulitzer because they did not have a high opinion of newspapers in general and Pulitzer's in particular. 

D. The Pulitzer papers did not have a high regard for what was being taught in Columbia University's school of journalism. 

9. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. There were long discussions about the names that could "be used in the new school of journalism and the journalism prizes, and these discussions proved quite harmful to Pulitzer. 

B. It took quite some time for Pulitzer and Columbia University to reach an agreement, and the agreement was not actually implemented until after Pulitzer's death. 

C. University officials spent years discussing what the new journalism building would look like and finally came to a decision about it in 1911. 

D. Pulitzer’s death caused university officials to rethink their decision on a school of journalism and to decide that it was a good idea to have one. 

10. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. The 21 awards are divided equally among journalism, letters, and music. 

B. Three different awards are given to journalists, while the others are given to artists and musicians. C. Most awards are given in three different areas of journalism, while the rest are given in letters and music. 

D. Two-thirds of the awards are for journalism, while the other third goes to other fields. 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 11-14) 

Competition and Cooperation

1 Explanations of the interrelationship between competition and cooperation have evolved over time. Early research into competition and cooperation defined each of them in terms of the distribution of rewards related to each. Competition was defined as a situation in which rewards are distributed unequally on the basis of performance; cooperation, on the other hand, was defined as a situation in which rewards are distributed equally on the basis of mutual interactive behavior among individuals. By this definition, a competitive situation requires at least one competitor to fail for each competitor that wins, while a cooperative situation offers a reward only if all members of the group receive it. 

2 Researchers have found definitions of competition and cooperation based upon rewards inadequate primarily because definitions of these two concepts based upon rewards depict them as opposites. In current understanding, competition is not viewed as the opposite of cooperation; instead, cooperation is viewed as an integral component of competition. Cooperation is necessary among team members, perhaps in a sporting event or in a political race, in order to win the competition; it is equally important to understand that cooperation is of great importance between teams, in that same sporting or political race, inasmuch as the opposing teams need to be in agreement as to the basic ground rules of the game or election in order to compete. 

3 Interestingly, the word competition is derived from a Latin verb which means "to seek together." An understanding of the derivation of the word competition supports the understanding that cooperation, rather than evoking a characteristic at the opposite extreme of human nature from competition, is in reality a necessary factor in competition. 

11. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Unequal rewards for competition should be distributed equally to achieve cooperation. B. Earlier definitions of competition and cooperation described them in basically the same way. C. Competition and cooperation were seen as opposites, with rewards distributed equally to those who competed and unequally to those who cooperated. 

D. Competition was defined in terms of unequal distribution of rewards and cooperation in terms of equal distribution of rewards. 

12. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. It does not work well to define competition and cooperation in terms of rewards because definitions of this type incorrectly indicate that the two are opposites. 

B. Researchers tend to define competition and cooperation on the basis of rewards because this shows how the two differ. 

C. Researchers are looking for ways to define cooperation and competition in terms of rewards but have so far not been able to come up with definitions. 

D. Research has shown that the optimal definitions of competition and cooperation are those indicating that the two are opposites. 

13. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Because sports and politics are so competitive, participants may appear to be cooperating but are not really doing so. 

B. In a number of contexts, cooperation is necessary both among team members and between opposing teams. 

C. When cooperation exists in contests such as games and elections, competition naturally decreases. D. In sports, cooperation is necessary among team members but should not take place between opposing teams. 

14. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. The derivation of the word competition indicates that competition and cooperation are clearly opposing forces. 

B. The derivation of the word competition shows us that competition is necessary for cooperation to succeed. 

C. The derivation of the word competition demonstrates that cooperation is an integral part of competition. 

D. The derivation of the word competition leads to the conclusion that cooperation cannot exist without competition. 

READING SKILL 4: INSERT SENTENCES INTO THE PASSAGE

QUESTIONS ABOUT INSERTING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSAGE

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION 

Look at the four squares 

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER 

The places where the sentences may be inserted are marked in the  passage 

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

1. Look at the sentence to be inserted for any key words or ideas at  the beginning or the end of the sentence 

2. Read the context before and after the insertion squares for any  ideas that relate to the sentence to be inserted 

3. Choose the insertion square that is most related to the sentence to  be inserted



READING EXERCISE 4: Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) 

Popcorn 

1 One method of popping corn involved skewering an ear of corn on a stick and roasting it until the 

1A 



kernels popped off the ear. Corn was also popped by first cutting the kernels off the cob, throwing them 

1B 



into a fire, and gathering them as they popped out of the fire. In a final method for popping corn, sand 

1C 



and unpopped kernels of corn were mixed together in a cooking pot and heated until the corn popped to the surface of the sand in the pot.  

1D



2 This traditional Native American dish was quite a novelty to newcomers to the Americas.  


2A 




2B




Columbus and his sailors found natives in the West Indies wearing popcorn necklaces, and explorer Hernando Cortes described the use of popcorn amulets in the religious ceremonies of the Aztecs.  

2C



According to legendary descriptions of the celebratory meal, Quadequina, the brother of Chief Massasoit, contributed several deerskin bags of popcorn to the celebration. 

2D



1. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the first paragraph 

of the passage. 




Native Americans have been popping corn for at least 5,000 years, using a variety of different methods. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

1



2. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the second 

paragraph of the passage. 




A century after these early explorers, the Pilgrims at Plymouth may have been introduced to popcorn at the first Thanksgiving dinner. 

Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage. 



PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) 

Lions 

1 Something unusual about lions is that they hunt in groups. Group hunting is beneficial to lions 


3A 




3B 



3C 




because it means that much larger prey can be captured by the lions. It also means that individual lions expend much less energy during a hunt. 

3D



2 There is a standard pattern to the process of hunting in groups. The process is initiated by a 

4A 



single female, who stations herself at a raised elevation to serve as a lookout to spot potential prey.  

4B



When prey is spotted, a group of young lionesses advances on the herd and pushes the herd in the direction of a different lioness who has hidden herself downwind. It is up to this concealed female to choose the 

4C 



weakest member of the herd for the kill.  

4D



3 As can be seen from this description of the process, it is the females rather than the male or 

5A 



males in the pride that take part in the kill. The younger and stronger females are the ones who go on 

5B 



the attack. While the females are on the attack, the males stay behind to protect the rest of the pride 

5C 



from attack by predators such as hyenas.  

5D



3. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the first paragraph 

of the passage.  Other cats do not. 




Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

3



4. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the second 

paragraph of the passage.

4




This is usually accomplished by knocking the prey to the ground and breaking its neck. Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

4



5. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the third paragraph 

of the passage. 

5




Thus, the males have a defensive rather than an offensive role. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

5



PASSAGE THREE (Questions 6-7) Accidental Inventions 

1 A number of products that we commonly use today were developed quite by accident. Two of many possible examples of this concept are the leotard and the Popsicle, each of which came about when an insightful person recognized a potential benefit in a negative situation. 

2 The first of these accidental inventions is the leotard, a close-fitting, one-piece garment worn today by dancers, gymnasts, and acrobats, among others. In 1828, a circus performer named Nelson Hower 

6A 



was faced with the prospect of missing his performance because his costume was at the cleaners.  

6B



Instead of canceling his part of the show, he decided to perform in his long underwear. Soon, other circus 

6C 



performers began performing the same way. When popular acrobat Jules Leotard adopted the style, it 

became known as the leotard. 

6D 




3 Another product invented by chance was the Popsicle. In 1905, eleven-year-old Frank 


7A 



7B 




Epperson stirred up a drink of fruit-flavored powder and soda water and then mistakenly left the drink, with the spoon in it, out on the back porch overnight. As the temperature dropped that night, the soda water 


7C 

7D 



froze around the spoon, creating a tasty treat. Years later, remembering how enjoyable the treat had been, Epperson went into business producing Popsicles. 

6. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the second 

paragraph of the passage. 

6




They enjoyed the comfort of performing in underwear rather than costumes. Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

6



7. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the third paragraph 

of the passage. 

7




It was a taste sensation that stayed on his mind. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

7



PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 8-9) Uranium 

1 Uranium, a radioactive metal named after the planet Uranus, is a primary source of energy in nuclear power plants and certain nuclear weapons. It occurs naturally in three different isotopes, which differ in their facility in undergoing nuclear fission. 

2 The three naturally occurring isotopes of uranium are U-234, U-235, and U-238. Each of these 


8A 



8B 




isotopes has the same atomic number of 92, which is the number of protons in the nucleus. However, 

8C 



each has a different number of neutrons and thus has a different atomic mass, which is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.  

8D



3 Of these three naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, U-238 is by far the most common, while U-235 is the most capable of undergoing nuclear fission. More than 99 percent of all naturally occurring 

9A 



uranium is U-238, while U-234 and U-235 each makes up less than 1 percent. Nuclear fission can occur 

9B 



when a U-235 nucleus is struck by a neutron, and the nucleus splits, releasing energy and releasing two or more neutrons. However, nuclear fission rarely involves a U-238 or a U-234 nucleus because it is unusual 

9C 



for either of these nuclei to break apart when struck by a neutron.  

9D



8. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the second 

paragraph of the passage. 

8




U-234 has 92 protons and 142 neutrons for an atomic mass of 234, U-235 has 92 protons and 143 neutrons for a total of 235, and U-238 has 92 protons and 146 neutrons for a total of 238. Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

8



9. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the third paragraph 

of the passage.  

9




These neutrons can create a chain reaction by causing other U-235 nuclei to break up. Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

9



READING EXERCISE (Skills 3-4): Theodore Dreiser

1 Theodore Dreiser, the American author best known for the novel Sister Carrie (1912), introduced 

1A 



a powerful style of writing that had a profound influence on the writers that followed him, from Steinbeck to Fitzgerald and Hemingway.  It was in Sister Carrie that Theodore Dreiser created a fictional account that 

1B



laid bare the harsh reality of life in the big city and in which Dreiser established himself as the architect of a new genre. 

1C



2 Dreiser was born in 1871 into a large family whose fortunes had in the recent past taken a dramatic turn for the worse. Before Theodore's birth, his father had built up a successful factory business only to lose it to a fire. The family was rather abruptly thrust into poverty, and Theodore spent 

4A 



his youth moving from place to place in the Midwest as the family tried desperately to reestablish itself financially. He left home at the age of sixteen. After earning some money, he spent a year at Indiana 


4B 



4C 




University but left school and returned to Chicago, yearning for the glamour and excitement that it offered. 

At the age of twenty-two, he began work as a reporter for a small newspaper in Chicago, the Daily Globe, 

4D 



and later worked on newspapers in Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Saint Louis, and New York City. In his work as a reporter, he was witness to the seamier side of life and was responsible for recording events that befell the less fortunate in the city, the beggars, the alcoholics, the prostitutes, and the working poor. 

3 Dreiser first tried his hand at fiction by writing short stories rather than novels, and the first four 

5A 



short stories that he wrote were published. Based on this, he was encouraged to write a novel that would 

5B 



accurately depict the harsh life of the city, and the novel Sister Carrie was the result of his effort. This 

5C 



novel chronicles the life of Carrie Meeber, a small-town girl who goes to Chicago in a quest for fame and fortune. As Carrie progresses from factory worker to Broadway star by manipulating anyone 

5D 



in her path, Dreiser sends a clear message about the tragedy of life that is devoted purely to the quest for money. 

4 Sister Carrie, unfortunately for Dreiser, did not achieve immediate success. The novel was 

7A 



accepted for publication by Doubleday, but Dreiser was immediately asked to make major revisions to the novel. When Dreiser refused to make the revisions, Doubleday published only a limited number of copies 

7B 



of the book and refused to promote or advertise it. Published in limited release and without the backing 

7C 



of the company, the novel was a dismal failure, selling fewer than 500 copies.  

7D



5 After the failure of the novel that was so meaningful to him, Dreiser suffered a nervous breakdown; he was depressed, stricken with severe headaches, and unable to sleep for days on end. Having sunk to a point where he was considering suicide, he was sent by his brother to a sanatorium in White Plains, New York, where he eventually recovered. After leaving the sanatorium, he took a position 

10A 



as an editor for Butterick's. He was successful in this position, and was eventually able to purchase a 

10B 



one-third interest in a new publishing company, B. W. Dodge, which republished Dreiser's novel Sister Carrie. 

This new release of the novel proved considerably more successful than the first release had been.  

10C 



10D



In its first year, the reissued version of Sister Carrie sold 4,500 copies, with strong reviews, and the next year it sold more than 10,000 copies. The recognition that accompanied the success of the novel was based not only on the power of the description of the perils of urban life but also on the new trend in literature that Dreiser was credited with establishing. 

Questions 

1. Look at the three squares that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 1. 



This forceful first novel set a new path for American novels at the turn of the last century. Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage. 



2. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Dreiser’s family had formerly been rich before it had become poor. 

B. Dreiser was, unfortunately, born into an overly dramatic family. 

C. The fortunes of Dreiser’s family had recently increased. 

D. Members of Dreiser’s family suffered from the serious effects of a disease. 

3. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Dreiser served as a witness in a number of trials that involved beggars, alcoholics, and prostitutes. B. Dreiser observed and wrote about the poorer classes as part of his newspaper job. C. In New York City, during Dreiser's time, there were many people who were less fortunate than Dreiser. D. Dreiser's work involved working with beggars, alcoholics, and prostitutes. 

4. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 2. 



At this young age, he moved alone to Chicago and supported himself by taking odd jobs. Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.



5. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 3. 

5



It was rather unusual for a novice writer to achieve so much so quickly. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

5



6. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Dreiser devoted his life primarily to trying to become rich. 

B. In Dreiser's novel, Carrie succeeds by moving from a low-level job to stardom. 

C. Dreiser used one of his characters to demonstrate the negative aspects of lust for money. D. Dreiser tried to warn Carrie that she was taking the wrong path in life. 

7. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 4. 

7



These changes were intended to tone down some of the starker and more scandalous descriptions. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

7



8. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 5? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Dreiser recovered from an attempted suicide at a sanatorium. 

B. Dreiser's brother went to a sanatorium after attempting suicide. 

C. After being sent to a sanatorium, Dreiser considered committing suicide. 

D. Dreiser's brother stepped in to help Dreiser after Dreiser became depressed. 

9. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 5? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. In Dreiser's novels, he recognized the power of urban life and new trends that existed in it. B. The success of Dreiser's novel went unrecognized because it represented such a new trend in literature. 

C. Dreiser credited his urban upbringing and literary background for the success that his novel achieved. D. Dreiser achieved acclaim because his writing was so powerful and because he established a new trend. 

10. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 5. 

10



This company was one that published magazines to promote sewing and the sale of clothing patterns. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

10



READING REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-4): Read the passage. 

Pulsars 

1 There is still much for astronomers to learn about pulsars. Based on what is known, the term pulsar is used to describe the phenomenon of short, precisely timed radio bursts that are emitted from somewhere in space. Though all is not known about pulsars, they are now believed in reality to emanate from spinning neutron stars, highly reduced cores of collapsed stars that are theorized to exist. 

2 Pulsars were discovered in 1967, when Jocelyn Bell, a graduate student at Cambridge University, noticed an unusual pattern on a chart from a radio telescope. What made this pattern unusual was that, unlike other radio signals from celestial objects, this series of pulses had a highly regular period of 1.33730119 seconds. Because day after day the pulses came from the same place among the stars, Cambridge researchers came to the conclusion that they could not have come from a local source such as an Earth satellite. 

3 A name was needed for this newly discovered phenomenon. The possibility that the signals 


5A 



5B 




were coming from a distant civilization was considered, and at that point the idea of naming the phenomenon L.G.M. (short for Little Green Men) was raised. However, after researchers had found three 

5C 



more regularly pulsing objects in other parts of the sky over the next few weeks, the name pulsar was selected instead of L.G.M. 

5D



4 As more and more pulsars were found, astronomers engaged in debates over their nature. It was determined that a pulsar could not be a star inasmuch as a normal star is too big to pulse so fast. The question was also raised as to whether a pulsar might be a white dwarf star, a dying star that has collapsed to approximately the size of the Earth and is slowly cooling off. However, this idea was also rejected because the fastest pulsar known at the time pulsed around thirty times per second and a white dwarf, which is the smallest known type of star, would not hold together if it were to spin that fast.

5 The final conclusion among astronomers was that only a neutron star, which is theorized to be the remaining core of a collapsed star that has been reduced to a highly dense radius of only around 10 kilometers, was small enough to be a pulsar. Further evidence of the link between pulsars and neutron stars was found in 1968, when a pulsar was found in the middle of the Crab Nebula. The Crab Nebula is what remains of the supernova of the year 1054, and inasmuch as it has been theorized that neutron stars sometimes remain following supernova explosions, it is believed that the pulsar coming from the Crab Nebula is evidently just such a neutron star. 

6 The generally accepted theory for pulsars is the lighthouse theory, which is based upon a 

13A 



consideration of the theoretical properties of neutron stars and the observed properties of pulsars.  

13B



According to the lighthouse theory, a spinning neutron star emits beams of radiation that sweep through the sky, and when one of the beams passes over the Earth, it is detectable on Earth. It is known as the 

13C 



lighthouse theory because the emissions from neutron stars are similar to the pulses of light emitted from lighthouses as they sweep over the ocean; the name lighthouse is therefore actually more appropriate than the name pulsar.  

13D



Questions 

1. The phrase emanate from in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to 

A. develop from B. revolve around 

C. wander away from D. receive directions from 

2. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. It was unusual for researchers to hear patterns from space. 

B. It was unusual for celestial objects to emit radio signals. 

C. It was unusual that the pattern of the pulsars was so regular. 

D. It was unusual that the period of pulses was only slightly more than a second in length. 3. The word they in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. day after day B. the pulses C. the stars D. Cambridge researchers

4. The word raised in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by 

A. Lifted B. Suggested C. Discovered D. Elevated 

5. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 3. 



This name was selected because it indicates a regularly pulsing radio source. Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage. 



6. The phrase engaged in in paragraph 4 could best replaced by 

A. became attached to 

B. were disappointed in 

7. The word their in paragraph 4 refers to 

C. made promises about D. took part in 

A. weeks B. pulsars C. astronomers D. details 

8. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Pulsars could not be white dwarfs because the frequency of the pulsars is too high. B. Pulsars cannot spin very fast because they will fall apart if they spin fast. 

C. White dwarfs cannot be dying stars because they cannot pulse at around thirty times per second. D. White dwarfs cannot contain pulsars because white dwarfs spin much faster than pulsars. 

9. The word Further in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to  

A. Distant B. Irrelevant C. Additional D. Unreliable 

10. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 5? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. It is believed that the supernova of 1054 created the Crab Nebula, which contains a pulsing neutron star. 

B. It is believed that a pulsar created the Crab Nebula, which exploded in a supernova in 1054. C. It is believed that a neutron star exploded in the supernova of 1054, creating the Crab Nebula. D. It is believed that the Crab Nebula is a pulsar that is on the verge of becoming a supernova. 

11. The word properties in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to

A. Lands B. Characteristics C. Masses D. surroundings

12. The word it in paragraph 6 refers to A. a spinning neutron star 

B. the sky 

C. one of the beams D. the Earth 

13. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 6. 

13



The periodic flashing of pulsars is related to rotation rather than pulsing, so the name pulsar is actually not very accurate. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

13



READING SKILL 5: FIND FACTUAL INFORMATION 

QUESTIONS ABOUT FACTUAL INFORMATION

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

According to paragraph X … 

It is stated in paragraph X … 

It is indicated in paragraph X … 

It is mentioned in paragraph X …

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

These answers are generally found in order in the passage, and the  paragraph where the answer is found is generally indicated in the  question

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

 Choose a key word or idea in the question 

 Skim the appropriate paragraph for the key word or idea  Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea 

 Eliminate any definitely wrong answers, and choose the best  answer from the remaining choices



READING EXERCISE 5: Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the questions that  follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-5) Lake Baikal 

1 Crescent-shaped Lake Baikal, in Siberia, is only the ninth largest lake in area at 385 miles (620 km) in length and 46 miles (74 km) in width, yet it is easily the largest body of fresh water in the world. It holds one-fifth of the world's total fresh water, which is more than the total of all the water in the five Great Lakes; it holds so much fresh water in spite of its less-than-impressive area because it is by far the world's deepest lake. The average depth of the lake is 1,312 feet (400 meters) below sea level, and the Olkhon Crevice, the lowest known point, is more than 5,250 feet (1,600 meters) deep. 

2 Lake Baikal, which today is located near the center of the Asian peninsula, is most likely the world's oldest lake. It began forming 25 million years ago as Asia started splitting apart in a series of great faults. The Baikal Valley dropped away, eventually filling with water and creating the deepest of the world's lakes. 

1. What is stated in paragraph 1 about the shape of Lake Baikal? 

A. It is wider than it is long. 

B. It is circular in shape. 

2. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that the area of Lake Baikal 

C. Its width is one-half of its length. D. It is shaped like a new moon. 

A. is less than the area of eight other lakes B. is one-ninth the area of Siberia 

3. According to paragraph 1, Lake Baikal  A. holds one-fifth of the world's water B. holds five times the water of the Great Lakes 

4. According to paragraph 1, the Olkhon Crevice is A. outside of Lake Baikal 

B. 400 meters below sea level 

5. It is mentioned in paragraph 2 that Lake Baikal A. is not as old as some other lakes 

C. is greater than the area of any other freshwater lake D. is equal to the area of the five Great Lakes 

C. holds one-ninth of the world's water 

D. holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water 

C. the deepest part of Lake Baikal  

D. 5,000 meters deep 

B. formed when sections of the Earth were moving away from each other C. was fully formed 25 million years ago 

D. is today located on the edge of the Asian peninsula 

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 6-10) 

The Postage Stamp

1 The postage stamp has been around for only a relatively short period of time. The use of stamps for postage was first proposed in England in 1837, when Sir Rowland Hill published a pamphlet entitled "Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability" to put forth the ideas that postal rates should not be based on the distance that a letter or package travels but should instead be based on the weight of the letter or package and that fees for postal services should be collected in advance of the delivery, rather than after, through the use of postage stamps. 

2 The ideas proposed by Hill went into effect in England almost immediately, and other countries soon followed suit. The first English stamp, which featured a portrait of then Queen Victoria, was printed in 1840. This stamp, the "penny black," came in sheets that needed to be separated with scissors and provided enough postage for a letter weighing 14 grams or less to any destination. In 1843, Brazil was the next nation to produce national postage stamps, and various areas in what is today Switzerland also produced postage stamps later in the same year. Postage stamps in five- and ten-cent denominations were first approved by the U.S. Congress in 1847, and by 1860 postage stamps were being issued in more than 90 governmental jurisdictions worldwide. 

6. According to paragraph 1, postage stamps were first suggested 

A. in the first half of the eighteenth century 

B. in the second half of the eighteenth century 

C. in the first half of the nineteenth century 

D. in the second half of the nineteenth century 

7. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that Sir Rowland Hill believed that postage fees 

A. should be paid by the sender 

B. should be related to distance 

C. should have nothing to do with how heavy a package is 

D. should be collected after the package is delivered 

8. What is stated in paragraph 2 about the first English postage stamp? 

A. It was designed by Queen Victoria. 

B. It contained a drawing of a black penny. 

C. It was produced in sheets of 14 stamps.  

D. It could be used to send a lightweight letter. 

9. According to paragraph 2, Brazil introduced postage stamps 

A. before England 

B. before Switzerland 

10. It is mentioned in paragraph 2 that in 1847 

C. after the United States D. after Switzerland 

A. postage stamps were in use in 90 different countries 

B. it cost fifteen cents to mail a letter in the United States 

C. two different denominations of postage stamps were introduced in the United States D. the U.S. Congress introduced the "penny black" stamp 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 11-15) 

The Clovis Culture 

1 Archeologists have found sites all over North America that contain similar tools dating from a period about 12,000 years ago. The culture that developed these tools has been named Clovis after the site near Clovis, New Mexico, where the first tools of this sort were discovered in 1932. The tools are quite sophisticated and are unlike any tools that have been found in the Old World. 

2 In the years since the first tools of this sort were discovered in New Mexico, archeologists have discovered Clovis tools in areas ranging from Mexico to Montana in the United States and Nova Scotia in Canada. All of the Clovis finds date from approximately the same period, a fact which suggests that the Clovis spread rapidly throughout the North American continent. 

3 From the evidence that has been discovered, archeologists have concluded that the Clovis were a mobile culture. They traveled in groups of 40 to 50 individuals, migrating seasonally and returning to the same hunting camps each year. Their population increased rapidly as they spread out over the continent, and they were quite possibly motivated to develop their sophisticated hunting tools to feed their rapidly expanding populace. 

11. What is stated in paragraph 1 about Clovis tools? 

A. They date from around 10,000 B.C. 

B. They have been in use for 12,000 years. 

C. They have been found at only one location. 

D. They were discovered by archeologists hundreds of years ago.

12. According to paragraph 1, the town of Clovis 

A. is in Mexico 

B. was founded in 1932 

C. is where all members of the Clovis culture lived 

D. is where the first remnants of an ancient culture were found 

13. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that the tools found near Clovis, New Mexico, were A. very rudimentary 

B. similar to others found prior to 1932 

C. rather advanced 

D. similar to some found in Africa and Europe 

14. According to paragraph 2, what conclusion have archeologists drawn from the Clovis finds? A. That the Clovis tended to remain in one place 

B. That the Clovis expanded relatively quickly 

C. That the Clovis lived throughout the world 

D. That the Clovis were a seafaring culture 

15. It is mentioned in paragraph 3 that it is believed that the Clovis 

A. lived in familial groups of four or five people 

B. had a relatively stable population 

C. lived only in New Mexico 

D. spent summers and winters in different places 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 16-22)  

Brown Dwarfs 

1 A brown dwarf is a celestial body that has never quite become a star. A typical brown dwarf has a mass that is 8 percent or less than that of the Sun. The mass of a brown dwarf is too small to generate the internal temperatures capable of igniting the nuclear burning of hydrogen to release energy and light. 2 A brown dwarf contracts at a steady rate, and after it has contracted as much as possible, a process that takes about 1 million years, it begins to cool off. Its emission of light diminishes with the decrease in its internal temperature, and after a period of 2 to 3 billion years, its emission of light is so weak that it can be difficult to observe from Earth. 

3 Because of these characteristics of a brown dwarf, it can be easily distinguished from stars in different stages of formation. A brown dwarf is quite distinctive because its surface temperature is relatively cool and because its internal composition-approximately 75 percent hydrogen-has remained essentially the same as it was when first formed. A white dwarf, in contrast, has gone through a long period when it burns hydrogen, followed by another long period in which it burns the helium created by the burning of hydrogen and ends up with a core that consists mostly of oxygen and carbon with a thin layer of hydrogen surrounding the core. 

4 It is not always as easy, however, to distinguish brown dwarfs from large planets. Though planets are not formed in the same way as brown dwarfs, they may in their current state have some of the same characteristics as a brown dwarf. The planet Jupiter, for example, is the largest planet in our solar system with a mass 317 times that of our planet and resembles a brown dwarf in that it radiates energy based on its internal energy. It is the mechanism by which they were formed that distinguishes a high-mass planet such as Jupiter from a low-mass brown dwarf. 

16. It is stated in the passage that the mass of an average brown dwarf 

A. is smaller than the mass of the Sun 

B. generates an extremely high internal temperature 

C. is capable of igniting nuclear burning 

D. causes the release of considerable energy and light 

17. According to paragraph 2, a brown dwarf cools off 

A. within the first million years of its existence B. after its contraction is complete 

C. at the same time that it contracts D. in order to begin contracting 

18. What is stated in paragraph 2 about a brown dwarf that has cooled off for several million years? A. Its weak light makes it difficult to see from Earth. 

B. It no longer emits light. 

C. Its weak light has begun the process of restrengthening. 

D. Scientists are unable to study it. 

19. It is indicated in paragraph 3 that 

A. the amount of hydrogen in a brown dwarf has increased dramatically

B. a brown dwarf had far more hydrogen when it first formed 

C. three-quarters of the core of a brown dwarf is hydrogen 

D. the internal composition of a brown dwarf is always changing 

20. According to paragraph 3, a white dwarf  

A. is approximately 75 percent hydrogen 

B. still burns a considerable amount of hydrogen 

C. creates hydrogen from helium 

D. no longer has a predominantly hydrogen core 

21. What is mentioned in paragraph 4 about brown dwarfs? 

A. They are quite different from large planets. 

B. They are formed in the same way as large planets. 

C. They can share some similarities with large planets. 

D. They have nothing in common with large planets. 

22. It is indicated in paragraph 4 that Jupiter 

A. radiates far less energy than a brown dwarf 

B. is a brown dwarf 

C. formed in the same way as a brown dwarf 

D. is in at least one respect similar to a brown dwarf 

READING SKILL 6: UNDERSTAND NEGATIVE FACTS 

QUESTIONS ABOUT NEGATIVE FACTS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

It is NOT discussed … 

It is NOT stated … 

It is NOT true … 

It is NOT indicated … 

It is NOT mentioned … 

All of the following are true EXCEPT…

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

These answers are generally found in order in the passage, and the  paragraph where the answer is found is generally indicated in the  question

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

 Choose a key word or idea in the question 

 Skim the appropriate paragraph for the key word or idea  Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea  Eliminate any definitely wrong answers, and choose the best  answer from the remaining choices



READING EXERCISE 6: Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that  follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-5) Flatfish 

Members of the flatfish family, sand dabs and flounders, have an evolutionary advantage over many colorfully decorated ocean neighbors in that they are able to adapt their body coloration to different environments. These aquatic chameleons have flattened bodies that are well-suited to life along the ocean floor in the shallower areas of the continental shelf that they inhabit. They also have remarkably sensitive color vision that registers the subtlest gradations on the sea bottom and in the sea life around them. Information about the coloration of the environment is carried through the nervous system to chromatophores, which are pigment-carrying skin cells. These chromatophores are able to accurately reproduce not only the colors but also the texture of the ocean floor. Each time that a sand dab or flounder finds itself in a new environment, the pattern on the body of the fish adapts to fit in with the color and texture around it. 

1. It is NOT stated in the passage that sand dabs 

A. are a type of flatfish 

B. are in the same family as flounders 

C. have evolved 

D. are colorfully decorated 

2. According to the passages, it is NOT true that sand dabs and flounders 

A. have flattened bodies 

B. live along the ocean floor

C. live in the deepest part of the ocean 

D. live along the continental shelf 

3. All of the following are stated about the vision of sand dabs and flounders EXCEPT that they are 

A. overly sensitive to light 

B. able to see colors 

4. It is NOT true that chromatophores A. are skin cells 

B. carry pigment 

C. able to see the sea bottom D. aware of their surroundings 

C. adapt to surrounding colors D. change the ocean floor 

5. It is NOT mentioned in the passage that sand dabs and flounders 

A. move to new environments B. adapt their behavior 

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 6-10) 

C. can change color 

D. adapt to textures around them 

Limestone Caves 

1 Limestone caves can be spectacular structures filled with giant stalactites and stalagmites. These caves are formed when rainwater, which is a weak acid, dissolves calcite, or lime, out of limestone. Over time, the lime-laden water drips down into cracks, enlarging them into caves. Some of the lime is then redeposited to form stalactites and stalagmites. 

2 Stalactites, which grow down from cave ceilings, are formed in limestone caves when groundwater containing dissolved lime drips from the roof of the cave and leaves a thin deposit as it evaporates. Stalactites generally grow only a fraction of an inch each year, but over time a considerable number may grow to be several yards long. In cases where the supply of water is seasonal, they may actually have growth rings resembling those on tree trunks that indicate how old the stalactites are. 

3 Stalagmites are formed on the floor of a limestone cave where water containing dissolved lime has dripped either from the cave ceiling or from a stalactite above. They develop in the same way as stalactites, when water containing dissolved limestone evaporates. In some limestone caves with mature limestone development, stalactites and stalagmites grow together, creating limestone pillars that stretch from the cave floor to the cave ceiling. 

6. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that all of the following are part of the process of forming limestone caves  EXCEPT that 

A. rainwater dissolves lime from limestone 

B. the lime-filled water seeps into breaks in the ground 

C. the lime in the water evaporates 

D. the cracks in the ground develop into caves 

7. According to paragraph 2, it is NOT true that stalactites 

A. enlarge cave ceilings 

B. are found in limestone caves 

8. It is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 A. how long stalactites may grow B. how the age of a stalactite is determined  

C. grow in a downward direction 

D. grow quite slowly 

C. what one of the effects of a limited water supply is D. what causes stalactites to disappear 

9. According to paragraph 3, stalagmites are NOT formed A. on cave floors 

B. from lime dissolved in water 

10. It is NOT indicated in paragraph 3 that limestone pillars 

C. above stalactites 

D. as water containing lime evaporates 

A. result when a stalactite and a stalagmite grow together 

B. are attached to both the floor and the ceiling of a cave 

C. are relatively aged limestone formations 

D. are more durable than stalactites and stalagmites 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 11-15) 

Wrigley's Chewing Gum 

1 Wrigley's chewing gum was actually developed as a premium to be given away with other products rather than as a primary product for sale. As a teenager, William Wrigley Jr. was working for his father in Chicago selling soap that had been manufactured in his father's factory. The soap was not very popular with merchants because it was priced at five cents, and this selling price did not leave a good profit margin for the merchants. Wrigley convinced his father to raise the price to ten cents and to give away cheap umbrellas

as a premium for the merchants. This worked successfully, confirming to Wrigley that the use of premiums was an effective sales tool. 

2 Wrigley then established his own company; in his company he was selling soap as a wholesaler, giving baking soda away as a premium, and using a cookbook to promote each deal. Over time, the baking soda and cookbook became more popular than the soap, so Wrigley began a new operation selling baking soda. He began hunting for a new premium item to give away with sales of baking soda; he soon decided on chewing gum. Once again, when Wrigley realized that demand for the premium was stronger than the demand for the original product, he created the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company to produce and sell chewing gum.  

3 Wrigley started out with two brands of gum, Vassar and Lotta Gum, and soon introduced Juicy Fruit and Spearment. The latter two brands grew in popularity, while the first two were phased out. Juicy Fruit and Spearment are two of Wrigley's main brands to this day. 

11. It is NOT indicated in paragraph 1 that young William was working 

A. in Chicago B. for his father 

C. as a soap salesman D. in his father's factory 

12. According to paragraph 1, it is NOT true that the soap that young Wrigley was selling 

A. was originally well-liked 

B. was originally priced at five cents C. originally provided little profit for merchants 

D. eventually became more popular with  merchants 

13. According to paragraph 2, it is NOT true that, when Wrigley first founded his own company, he was 

A. selling soap 

B. selling chewing gum 

14. It is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 that Wrigley later

C. giving away cookbooks 

D. using baking soda as a premium 

A. sold baking soda 

B. used chewing gun as a premium to sell baking  soda 

C. sold chewing gum  

D. used baking soda as a premium to sell chewing  gum

15. According to paragraph 3, the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company did all of the following EXCEPT 

A. begin with two brands of gum B. add new brands to the original two 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 16-22) 

C. phase out the last two brands D. phase out the first two brands 


Dissociative Identity Disorder 

1 Dissociative identity disorder is a psychological condition in which a person's identity dissociates, or fragments, thereby creating distinct independent identities within one individual. Each separate personality can be distinct from the other personalities in a number of ways, including posture, manner of moving, tone and pitch of voice, gestures, facial expressions, and use of language. A person suffering from dissociative identity disorder may have a large number of independent personalities or perhaps only two or three. 

2 Two stories of actual women suffering from dissociative identity disorder have been extensively recounted in books and films that are familiar to the public. One of them is the story of a woman with 22 separate personalities known as Eve. In the 1950s, a book by Corbett Thigpen and a motion picture starring Joanne Woodward, each of which was titled The Three Faces of Eve, presented her story; the title referred to 3 faces, when the woman known as Eve actually experienced 22 different personalities, because only 3 of the personalities could exist at one time. Two decades later, Carolyn Sizemore, Eve's 22nd personality, wrote about her experiences in a book entitled I'm Eve. The second well-known story of a woman suffering from dissociative personality disorder is the story of Sybil, a woman whose 16 distinct personalities emerged over a period of 40 years. A book describing Sybil's experiences was written by Flora Rheta Schreiber and was published in 1973; a motion picture based on the book and starring Sally Field followed. 

16. It is NOT stated in paragraph 1 that someone suffering from dissociative identity disorder has 

A. a psychological condition 

B. a fragmented identity 

C. a number of independent identities 

D. some violent and some nonviolent  identities 

17. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that distinct personalities can differ in all of the following ways EXCEPT 

A. manner of dressing 

B. manner of moving 

18. It is indicated in paragraph 2 that it is NOT true that Eve A. suffered from dissociative identity disorder B. starred in the movie about her life 

C. had 22 distinct personalities 

C. manner of speaking 

D. manner of gesturing 

D. had only 3 distinct personalities at any one  time 

19. It is NOT stated in paragraph 2 that The Three Faces of Eve 

A. was based on the life of a real woman B. was the title of a book 

C. was the title of a movie D. was made into a movie in 1950 

20. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 2 about Carolyn Sizemore EXCEPT that she 

A. wrote I'm Eve 

B. was one of Eve's personalities 

21. According to paragraph 2, it is NOT true that Sybil A. was a real person 

B. suffered from dissociative identity disorder C. developed all her personalities over 16 years 

C. wrote a book in the 1970s 

D. was familiar with all 22 personalities 

D. developed 16 distinctive personalities over a long period of time 22. It is NOT indicated in paragraph 2 that the book describing Sybil's experiences 

A. took 40 years to write 

B. was written by Flora Rheta Schreiber 

C. appeared in the 1970s D. was made into a movie 

READING EXERCISE (Skills 5-6): Study the passage, and choose the best answers to the questions that  follow. 

John Muir 

1 John Muir (1838-1914), a Scottish immigrant to the United States, is today recognized for his vital contributions in the area of environmental protection and conservation of the wilderness. As such, he is often referred to as the unofficial "Father of National Parks." 

2 Muir came to his role as an environmentalist in a rather circuitous way. Born in Dunbar, Scotland, Muir came to the United States with his family at the age of eleven. The family settled on a Wisconsin farm, where Muir was educated at home rather than in public school because his father felt that participation in an

education in a public school would violate his strict religious code. Young Muir did read considerably at home and also developed some interesting mechanical devices by whittling them from wood; when some of his inventions were put on display at a state fair, they were noted by officials from the University of Wisconsin, and Muir was invited to attend the university in spite of his lack of formal education. He left the university after two and a half years; later, while working in a carriage factory, he suffered an injury to his eye. His vision did recover, but following the accident he decided that he wanted to spend his life studying the beauty of the natural world rather than endangering his health working in a factory. He set out on a 1,000- mile walk south to the Gulf of Mexico, and from there he made his way to Yosemite, California, lured by a travel brochure highlighting the natural beauty of Yosemite. 

3 He arrived in California in 1868, at the age of thirty, and once there, he took a number of odd jobs to support himself, working as a laborer, a sheepherder, and-after he had become familiar with the wilderness area-a guide. He also began a writing campaign to encourage public support for the preservation of the wilderness, particularly the area around Yosemite. He married in 1880, and for the years that followed he was more involved in family life and in running the ranch given to him and his wife by her parents than in preservation of the environment. 

4 He had been away from the environmentalist movement for some time when, in 1889, he was asked by an editor of the magazine The Century to write some articles in support of the preservation of Yosemite. The editor, well aware of Muir's talent as a writer and his efforts in the 1870s to support the conservation of Yosemite, took Muir camping to areas of Yosemite that Muir had not seen for years, areas that had been spoiled through uncontrolled development. Because of the experience of this trip, Muir agreed to write two articles in support of the institution of a National Parks system in the United States with Yosemite as the first park to be so designated. These two articles in The Century initiated the Yosemite National Park campaign. 

5 The campaign was indeed successful. The law creating Yosemite National Park was enacted in 1890, and three additional national parks were created soon after. A year later, a bill known as the Enabling Act was passed; this was a bill that gave U.S. presidents the right to reserve lands for preservation by the U.S. government. Pleased by this success but keenly aware of the need to continue the effort to preserve wilderness areas from undisciplined development, Muir established an organization in 1892, the Sierra Club, with the expressed goal of protecting the wilderness, particularly the area of the Sierra Nevada mountain range where Yosemite is located. 

6 From then until his death in 1914, Muir worked assiduously on his writing in an effort to build recognition of the need for environmental protection. His writings from this period include The Mountains of California (1894), Our National Parks (1901), My First Summer in the Sierra (1911), and My Boyhood and Youth (1913). 

7 A century later, the results of what John Muir was instrumental in initiating are remarkable. The National Park Service is now responsible for more than 350 parks, rivers, seashores, and preserves; more than 250 million people visit these parks each year, and the Sierra Club has more than 650,000 members. 

Questions 

1. According to paragraph 1, Muir was born 

A. in the first half of the eighteenth century B. in the second half of the eighteenth century 

2. It is stated in paragraph 1 that Muir is known for A. his contributions to immigration reform B. his explorations of the wilderness 

C. in the first half of the nineteenth century D. in the second half of the nineteenth century 

C. his efforts to maintain natural areas D. his extensive studies of the national Parks 

3. It is indicated in paragraph 2 that Muir's early education A. was conducted at home 

B. took place in a religious school 

4. It is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 that Muir A. whittled with wood 

B. was taught how to whittle by his father 

C. whittled mechanical devices 

C. violated his father's wishes 

D. was in a public school 

D. was admitted to the university because of  his whittling 

5. According to paragraph 2, after Muir left the university, it is NOT true that he 

A. took a job in a factory B. suffered an unhealable injury 

C. made a decision to quit his job D. embarked on a long walking tour 

6. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as jobs that Muir held EXCEPT 

A. a laborer 

B. an animal tender 

C. a wilderness guide D. a travel writer 

7. It is stated in paragraph 3 that in the years after 1880, Muir 

A. took some odd jobs B. devoted a lot of time to his family

C. gave his wife's parents a ranch D. spent most of his time preserving the  environment 

8. It is NOT mentioned in paragraph 4 that Muir 

A. had been uninvolved with environmentalists for a period of time 

B. was contacted by an editor for The Century 

C. worked as an editor for The Century 

D. wrote two articles for The Century 

9. The camping trip that is discussed in paragraph 4 

A. occurred in the 1870s 

B. led Muir to areas that he had never before seen 

C. took place in areas that were in their natural state 

D. helped to convince Muir to write the articles 

10. It is stated in paragraph 5 that the Enabling Act 

A. allowed the president to set aside lands to  conserve them 

B. became law in 1890 

C. called for the establishment of the first  three national parks 

D. preserved lands for government use 

11. According to paragraph 5, it is NOT true that the Sierra Club was founded 

A. after the passage of the Enabling Act B. by John Muir 

C. before the turn of the century D. to move Yosemite to the Sierra Nevada 

12. It is mentioned in paragraph 6 that, for the last decades of his life, Muir  

A. spent a considerable amount of time in Yosemite 

B. wrote a number of new laws 

C. changed his mind on the need for environmental protection 

D. devoted himself to increasing public awareness of the environment 

13. It is NOT indicated in paragraph 7 that early in the twenty-first century 

A. hundreds of locations are part of the National Park Service 

B. numerous parks, rivers, seashores, and preserves are being developed 

C. a quarter of a billion people visit these parks each year 

D. more than a half a million people belong to the Sierra Club 

READING REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-6): Read the passage. 

Caretaker Speech 

1 Children learn to construct language from those around them. Until about the age of three, children tend to learn to develop their language by modeling the speech of their parents, but from that time on, peers have a growing influence as models for language development in children. It is easy to observe that, when adults and older children interact with younger children, they tend to modify their language to improve communication with younger children, and this modified language is called caretaker speech

2 Caretaker speech is used often quite unconsciously; few people actually study how to modify language when speaking to young children but, instead, without thinking, find ways to reduce the complexity of language in order to communicate effectively with young children.  

5A



A caretaker will unconsciously speak in one way with adults and in a very different way with young children. 

 Caretaker speech tends to be slower speech with short, simple words and sentences which are said in a 

5B



higher-pitched voice with exaggerated inflecti0ns and many repetitions of essential information. It is not 

5C 



limited to what is commonly called baby talk, which generally refers to the use of simplified, repeated syllable expressions such as ma-ma, boo-boo, bye-bye, wa-wa, but also includes the simplified sentence structures repeated in sing-song inflections.  

5D



3 Caretaker speech serves the very important function of allowing young children to acquire language more easily. The higher-pitched voice and the exaggerated inflections tend to focus the small child on what the caretaker is saying, the simplified words and sentences make it easier for the small child to begin to comprehend, and the repetitions reinforce the child's developing understanding. Then, as a child's speech develops, caretakers tend to adjust their language in response to the improved language skills, again quite unconsciously. Parents and older children regularly adjust their speech to a level that is slightly above that of a younger child; without studied recognition of what they are doing, these caretakers will speak in one way to a one-year-old and in a progressively more complex way as the child reaches the age of two or three. 

4  An important point to note is that the function covered by caretaker speech, that of assisting a 

13A



child to acquire language in small and simple steps, is an unconsciously used but extremely important part of the process of language acquisition and as such is quite universal.  Studying cultures where children 

13B



do not acquire language through caretaker speech is difficult because such cultures are difficult to find. 

13C



The question of why caretaker speech is universal is not clearly understood; instead proponents on either side of the nature vs. nurture debate argue over whether caretaker speech is a natural function or a learned one. Those who believe that caretaker speech is a natural and inherent function in humans 

13D 



believe that it is human nature for children to acquire language and for those around them to encourage their language acquisition naturally; the presence of a child is itself a natural stimulus that increases the rate of caretaker speech among those present. In contrast, those who believe that caretaker speech develops through nurturing rather than nature argue that a person who is attempting to communicate with a child will learn by trying out different ways of communicating to determine which is the most effective from the reactions to the communication attempts; a parent might, for example, learn to use speech with exaggerated inflections with a small child because the exaggerated inflections do a better job of attracting the child's attention than do more subtle inflections. Whether caretaker speech results from nature or nurture, it does play an important and universal role in child language acquisition. 

Questions 

1. According to paragraph 1, children over the age of three 

A. learn little language from those around them 

B. are no longer influenced by the language of their parents 

C. are influenced more and more by those closer to their own age 

D. first begin to respond to caretaker speech 

2. The word modeling in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by 

A. demonstrating B. mimicking C. building D. designing 

3. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in  paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. Most people are quite aware of the use of caretaker speech because of thorough study and research  about it. 

B. The unconscious use of caretaker speech involves a reduction in the complexity of language, while  the conscious use of caretaker speech involves an increase in complexity. 

C. Young children tend to use caretaker speech quite unconsciously in order to reduce the complexity of  their thoughts to language that they can express. 

D. People generally seem to be able to adapt their language to the level of a child's language without  thinking consciously about it. 

4. The word It in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. caretaker speech B. a higher-pitched voice 

C. essential information D. baby talk 

5. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 2. 

5



Examples of these are expressions such as "Say bye-bye" or "Where's da-da?"  Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

5



6. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as characteristics of caretaker speech EXCEPT 

A. overemphasized inflections 

B. the use of rhyming sounds 

7. It is indicated in paragraph 3 that parents tend to 

C. the tendency to repeat oneself D. the use of easier words and structures 

A. speak in basically the same way to a one-year-old and a three-year-old 

B. use language that is far above the language level of a child 

C. speak in a progressively less complex way as a child matures 

D. modify their speech according to the language development of a child 

8. The word reaches in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by 

A. holds on to B. takes charge of C. arrives at D. extends out to 

9. The word that in paragraph 4 refers to 

A. an important point B. the function C. caretaker speech D. a child 

10. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in  paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. People who believe in nature over nurture feel that adults or older children who are around younger  children will naturally make changes in their language. 

B. Caretaker speech is one of many natural functions that are used to stimulate young children to  develop more rapidly.

C. The natural human tendency to acquire language makes caretaker speech unimportant in improving  the rate of language acquisition by children. 

D. It is human nature for children to develop the use of caretaker speech in order to take part effectively in conversations around them. 

11. According to paragraph 4, it is NOT expected that someone who believes in nurture over nature A. would believe that caretaker speech is more of a learned style of language than a natural one B. would use different styles of caretaker speech with children in response to what is working best C. would learn to use different styles of caretaker speech with different children 

D. would use less caretaker speech than do those who believe in nature over nurture 12. The phrase trying out in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to 

A. experimenting with B. bringing about C. throwing away D. taking over 

13. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 4. 

13



It is not merely a device used by English-speaking parents. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

13



READING SKILL 7: MAKE INFERENCES FROM STATED FACTS 

QUESTIONS ABOUT INFERENCES FROM STATED FACTS

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION

It is implied in paragraph X … 

It can be inferred from paragraph X … 

It is most likely that … 

What probably happened …?

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER 

These answers are generally found in order in the passage

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

 Choose a key word or phrase in the question 

 Scan the passage for the key word or phrase (or related idea)  Carefully read the sentence that contains the key word or phrase



READING EXERCISE 7: Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that follow. 

PASSAGE One (Questions 1-4) 

Tiger Moths 

One of the most beautiful of the more than 100,000 known species in the order Lepidoptera are the tiger moths, moths known for the striking appeal of their distinctive coloration. This type of moth is covered with highly conspicuous orange-and-black or yellow-and-black patterns of spots and stripes. Such boldly patterned color combinations are commonplace in the animal world, serving the function of forewarning potential predators of unpleasant tastes and smells. This is unquestionably the function served by the striking coloration of the garden tiger moth, which is quite visually attractive but is also poisonous to predators. Certain glands in the garden tiger moth produce strong toxins that circulate throughout the insect's bloodstream, while other glands secrete bubbles that produce a noxious warning smell. The tiger moth, indeed, is a clear example of a concept that many predators intuitively understand, that creatures with the brightest coloration are often the least suitable to eat. 

1. It is implied in the passage about the order Lepidoptera that 

A. all members of the order are moths 

B. there may be more than 100,000 species in this order 

C. all members of the order are brightly colored 

D. there are most likely fewer than 100,000 species in this order 

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the tiger moth was so named because 

A. its coloration resembles that of a tiger B. it is a ferocious predator, like the tiger C. its habitat is the same as the tiger's 

D. it is a member of the same scientific  classification as the tiger 

3. What would most likely happen to a predator that wanted to eat a tiger moth? A. The predator would be unable to catch it. 

B. The predator would capture it by poisoning it. 

C. The predator would be unable to find it. 

D. The predator would back away from it. 

4. Which of the following would a predator be most likely to attack successfully? 

A. A purple and orange moth B. A green and blue moth 

C. A brown and grey moth D. A red and yellow moth

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-8) 

The Cambrian Explosion 

1 Many of the major phyla of animals arose during the Cambrian period, in what is called the Cambrian Explosion. Prior to the Cambrian period, simple one-celled organisms had slowly evolved into primitive multicellular creatures. Then, in a relatively rapid explosion during the period from 540 million years ago to 500 million years ago, there was a period of astonishing diversification in which quickly developing organisms became widely distributed and formed complex communities. 

2 One theoretical explanation for the rapid diversification that occurred during the Cambrian period is known as the theory of polar wander. According to this theory, the rapid diversification occurred because of an unusually rapid reorganization of the Earth's crust during the Cambrian period. This rapid change in the Earth's crust initiated evolutionary change inasmuch as change in the environment serves to trigger evolutionary change. 

5. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that 

A. some major phyla developed during periods other than the Cambrian period B. many other phyla of animals became extinct during the Cambrian Explosion C. descriptions of various animal phyla were created during the Cambrian period D. the major phyla of animals that came about during the Cambrian period died out in the Cambrian Explosion 

6. It can be determined from paragraph 1 that the Cambrian Explosion most likely lasted  A. 40 million years B. 450 million years C. 500 million years D. 540 million years 

7. It is implied in paragraph 2 that 

A. only one theory to explain the rapid diversification has been proposed 

B. the polar wander explanation is accepted by all scientists 

C. the theory of polar wander fails to adequately explain the rapid diversification 

D. the theory of polar wander is not the only theory to explain the rapid diversification 

8. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that one basis of the theory of polar wander is that A. relatively little change in the Earth's crust took place during the Cambrian period B. rapid diversification was unable to take place because of the changes in the Earth's crust C. the Earth's crust changed more slowly in other periods 

D. evolutionary change is unrelated to changes in the environment 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 9-13) 

The Golden Age of Comics 

1 The period from the late 1930s to the middle 1940s is known as the Golden Age of comic books. The modern comic book came about in the early 1930s in the United States as a giveaway premium to promote the sales of a whole range of household products such as cereal and cleansers. The comic books, which were printed in bright colors to attract the attention of potential customers, proved so popular that some publishers decided to produce comic books that would come out on a monthly basis and would sell for a dime each. Though comic strips had been reproduced in publications prior to this time, the Famous Funnies comic book, which was started in 1934, marked the first occasion that a serialized book of comics was attempted. 

2 Early comic books reprinted already existing comic strips and comics based on known characters; however, publishers soon began introducing original characters developed specifically for comic books. Superman was introduced in Action Comics in 1938, and Batman was introduced a year later. The tremendous success of these superhero comic books led to the development of numerous comic books on a variety of topics, though superhero comic books predominated. Astonishingly, by 1945 approximately 160 different comic books were being published in the United States each month, and 90 percent of U.S. children were said to read comic books on a regular basis. 

9. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that, at the beginning of the 1930s, comic books most likely cost A. nothing B. 5 cents C. 10 cents D. 25 cents 

10. Comic books would least likely have been used to promote 

A. Soap B. Cookies C. Jewelry D. bread 11. It is implied in the passage that Famous Funnies 

A. was a promotional item B. appeared in a magazine 

C. had been produced prior to 1934 D. was published on a regular basis 

12. From the information in paragraph 2, it appears that Superman most likely

A. was introduced sometime after Batman 

B. was a character that first appeared in a comic book 

C. first appeared in Famous Funnies 

D. first appeared in a promotional comic strip 

13. It is implied in paragraph 2 that it is surprising that 

A. comic strips were more popular than comic books 

B. superheroes were not too popular 

C. 90 percent of U.S. children did not read comics 

D. comic books developed so quickly 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 14-19) 

The Filibuster 

1 The term filibuster has been in use since the mid-nineteenth century to describe the tactic of delaying legislative action in order to prevent the passage of a bill. The word comes from the Dutch freebooter, or pirate, and most likely developed from the idea that someone conducting a filibuster is trying to steal away the opportunity that proponents of a bill have to make it successful. 

2 In the earlier history of the U.S. Congress, filibusters were used in both the House of Representatives and in the Senate, but they are now much more a part of the culture of the Senate than of the House. Because the House is a much larger body than is the Senate, the House now has rules which greatly limit the amount of time that each member may speak, which effectively serves to eliminate the filibuster as a mechanism for delaying legislation in the House. 

3 In the Senate, the smaller of the two bodies, there are now rules that can constrain but not totally eliminate filibusters. The Senate adopted its first cloture rule in 1917, a rule which requires a vote of two thirds of the Senate to limit debate to one hour on each side. The rule was changed in 1975 and now requires a vote of three-fifths of the members to invoke cloture in most situations. 

4 The longest filibuster on record occurred in 1957, when Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina wanted to delay voting on civil rights legislation. The filibuster was conducted for twenty-four hours and 18 minutes on August 28 and 29, when Thurmond held the floor of the Senate by lecturing on the law and reading from court decisions and newspaper columns. It was his hope that this filibuster would rally opponents of civil rights legislation; however, two weeks after the filibuster, the Civil Rights Act of 1957 passed. 

14. It can be inferred from the information in paragraph 1 that around 1800 

A. the first filibuster took place 

B. legislative action was never delayed 

C. the term filibuster was not in use in the U.S. Congress 

D. the Dutch introduced the term freebooter 

15. It can be determined from paragraph 1 that a freebooter was most likely someone who 

A. served in the Senate B. robbed passing ships 

C. enacted legislation 

D. served in the Dutch government 

16. It is implied in paragraph 2 that, in its early years, the House 

A. had no rules against filibusters B. had few filibusters 

C. had fewer filibusters than the Senate D. had the longest filibuster on record 

17. Based on the information in paragraph 3, a vote of cloture would most likely be used to 

A. initiate filibusters B. break filibusters 

C. extend filibusters D. encourage filibusters 

18. It can be inferred from the information in paragraph 3 that the 1975 rule change A. increased the number of people needed to vote for cloture 

B. made it easier to limit a filibuster 

C. covered all types of Senate votes 

D. decreased the number of people in the Senate 

19. It is implied in paragraph 4 that Senator Thurmond was opposed to 

A. filibusters 

B. lecturing on the law 

C. speaking in the Senate D. the Civil Rights Act of 1957

READING SKILL 8: INFER RHETORICAL PURPOSE 

QUESTIONS ABOUT RHETORICAL PURPOSE

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION 

Why does the author … 

The author mentions X in order to …

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER 

The targeted information is highlighted in the passage

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

 Study the highlighted information carefully 

 Study the context around the highlighted information, and ak  yourself how the highlighted information is related to the context  around it 

 Draw a conclusion about the purpose of the highlighted  information 

 Read the answer choices, and eliminate any definitely wrong  answers 

 Choose the best answer from the remaining choices



READING EXERCISE 8: Study each of the passages, and choose the best answers to the questions that  follow. 

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-4) 

Xerography 

1 One more familiar use of electrochemistry that has made its way into the mainstream is xerography, a process for replicating documents that is dependent on photoconductive materials. A photoconductive material is an insulator in the dark but becomes a conductor when exposed to bright light. When a photocopy is being made, an image of a document is projected onto the surface of a rotating drum, and bright light causes the photoconductive material on the surface of the drum to become conductive. 

2 As a result of the conductivity, the drum loses its charge in the lighted areas, and toner (small grains to which dry ink adheres) attaches itself only to the darker parts of the image. The grains are then carried to a sheet of paper and fused with heat. When a laser printer is used, the image is projected by means of a laser beam, which creates a brighter light and a greater contrast between lighter and darker areas and therefore results in sharper printed images. 

1. The author begins the first paragraph with One more familiar use of electrochemistry in order to A. explain that xerography is one of the less familiar uses of electrochemistry 

B. make it clear that electrochemistry requires photoconductive materials 

C. show that xerography is the only known use for electrochemistry 

D. indicate that other less familiar uses have already been discussed 

2. Why does the author explain that A photoconductive material is an insulator in the dark but  becomes a conductor when exposed to bright light.

A. It gives an explanation of a property that is necessary for xerography. 

B. It indicates that bright light is required for insulation to take place. 

C. It gives one example of a successful xerographic process. 

D. It explains the role of insulation in xerography. 

3. The author places the phrase (small grains to which dry ink adheres) in parentheses in order to A. provide information that contradicts the previous statement 

B. provide another example of conductivity 

C. provide further detail information about toner 

D. provide an alternate explanation for the effectiveness of toner 

4. Why is a laser printer mentioned? 

It is an alternative to xerography. 

It is a way of duplicating without using electrochemistry. 

It is a second example of xerography. 

It is a less effective type of xerography than is a photocopier.

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-9) 

Demographic Change 

1 By the end of the 1920s, American society had undergone a long and historic demographic change. Since the 1870s, the had been moving from a more rural mode that was based on high birthrates – as high as 50 births annually per thousand people in the early nineteen century – to a more metropolitan mode. Prior to the 1870s, the population of the country was increasing by about a third every decade; however, by the end of the 1920s, a radical about-face had taken place. 

2 One major factor to affect the demographics of the country during this period was a dramatic decrease in birthrates. The trend during this era was more pronounced in urban areas but also had an effect in rural areas. As a result of the trend toward smaller families, particularly in cities, the birthrate was down to 27.7 births annually per thousand women by 1920 and had dropped even further-to 21.3 births annually per thousand women-by 1930. 

3 At the same time, the deathrate, too, was falling. Urban living led to better sanitation, refrigeration, and water purification; it also resulted in better medical care as doctors and hospitals were more readily available. Most likely as a result of these factors, there were only eleven deaths per thousand annually by early 1920s, which was half the rate of the 1880s. 

5. Why does the author include the phrase as high as 50 births annually per thousand people in the  early nineteen century in paragraph 1? 

A. To show that metropolitan areas of the country had higher birthrates than rural areas B. To provide statistical evidence of the elevated birthrate in the 1870s 

C. To quantify what had happened with the American population in the previous century D. To argue against the belief that the demographics of the country had changed 

6. The author uses the word however in paragraph 1 in order 

A. to make it clear that an extreme change had taken place 

B. to emphasize how tremendously the population was increasing 

C. to point out an alternate explanation for the change 

D. to indicate a difference of opinion with other demographers 

7. The author includes the word too in paragraph 3 

A. to indicate that both the birthrate and the death rate were holding steady 

B. to show that the rural mode was similar to the metropolitan mode 

C. to clarify the explanation that population trends before and after 1870 were similar D. to emphasize that paragraph 3 discusses a second factor in the demographic change 

8. Why does the author mention better medical care in paragraph 3? 

A. It helps to explain why the birthrate is increasing. 

B. It is an example of a factor that contributed to the improved birthrate. 

C. It helps to explain why the death rate is increasing. 

D. It is an example of a factor that contributed to the improved death rate. 

9. The author includes the expression Most likely in paragraph 3 to show 

that the data about the average number of deaths was not verified 

that doctors and hospitals may not have actually been more available 

that other factors may have contributed to the decreasing deathrate 

that the deathrate may not have decreased as much as stated 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 10-14) 

The Hubble Telescope 

1 The Hubble telescope was launched into space with great fanfare on April 25, 1990. Although there are many powerful telescopes at various locations on Earth, the Hubble telescope was expected to be able to provide considerably better information because it would be able to operate from the vacuum of space, without interference from the Earth's atmosphere. By launching the Hubble telescope into space, NASA was, in essence, placing an observatory above the Earth's atmosphere. 

2 Unfortunately, the Hubble telescope was initially delayed in relaying its first pictures back from space due to a simple mathematical miscalculation. The Hubble telescope relies upon certain stars to orient its observations, and astronomers working on the pointing instructions for the telescope used charts created in 1950, with adjustments for the movements of the stars in the ensuing period. In making these adjustments, however, astronomers added the amount of the adjustment rather than subtracting it- a simple checkbook-balancing error. The adjustment was a change of only half a degree, but by adding half a degree rather than subtracting it, the telescope's aim was misdirected by millions of miles.

10. Why does the author mention many powerful telescopes at various locations on Earth in paragraph 1?  

A. To emphasize the need for telescopes at various locations on Earth 

B. To show that the Hubble telescope was different from existing telescopes 

C. To indicate how the atmosphere improves the quality of information from space D. To emphasize the similarities between the Hubble telescope and other telescopes 

11. The author uses the phrase in essence in paragraph 2 in order to indicate information that follows the phrase 

A. provides a simplified description of a previously stated situation 

B. indicates the cause of a previously stated effect 

C. provides further details about a previously stated main idea 

D. indicates the classification to which previously stated examples belong 

12. Why does the author begin paragraph 2 with Unfortunately

A. It indicates that NASA has been unhappy with all of Hubble's photographs. 

B. It shows that NASA's plan to use stars to orient the Hubble telescope was misguided. C. It emphasizes the need to have telescopes on Earth. 

D. It indicates that high expectations were not initially met. 

13. The author mentions a simple checkbook-balancing error in paragraph in order to suggest that A. the astronomers must have difficulties with their checkbooks 

B. the adjustment made by the astronomers should have been more than half a degree C. a more balanced approach was needed when making adjustments 

D. the mistake made by the astronomers was a simple, everyday error 

14. Why does the author mention the detail millions of miles in paragraph 2? 

A. It reinforces the idea that the mistake had a huge effect. 

B. It emphasizes the wide range of the Hubble telescope. 

C. It demonstrates that the Hubble telescope travels long distances. 

D. It helps the reader to understand how powerful the Hubble telescope is. 

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 15-19) 

Territoriality 

1 In many species, members of the species exhibit aggressive behavior toward one another, often with a focus on territoriality, the fight for exclusive control of a particular area. The level of violence in territorial aggression varies to species, though few species fight other members of the species to death and instead rely on non-lethal contests for control of territory that involves noise-making maneuvers such as roaring or hissing or aggressive posturing or gestures. 

2 Most bird species are known to be territorial to some degree, though the territorial behaviors exhibited by most species are limited to singing contests, which can go on for days, or threatening postures with wings lifted or extended. The swan, on the other hand, is quite unlike other birds in this respect. The swan may seem particularly elegant and serene as it glides across the surface of a lake; however, male swans are, in reality, quite territorial and will fight other male swans for the exclusive use of a lake no matter how large the lake is. Males will engage in ferocious contests, with their necks entwined as they attempt to cause mortal injury to each other. 

15. Why does the author include the fight for exclusive control of a particular area in paragraph 1? A. It presents an argument against a previously stated point. 

B. It provides a definition of a previously stated term. 

C. It presents a second area of focus of aggressive behavior. 

D. It introduces a new idea to be further developed in the paragraph. 

16. The author uses the word instead in paragraph 2 to show that that follows 

A. contradicts what precedes it 

B. expands upon what precedes it 

C. provides an example of what precedes it 

D. explains an effect of what precedes it 

17. Why does the author mention singing contests in paragraph 2? 

A. To demonstrate that birds create beautiful sounds 

B. To provide an example of unusual behavior by birds 

C. To show how violently aggressive some bird behavior is 

D. To demonstrate that some types of territorial behaviors are not very aggressive

18. The author discusses the swan in paragraph 2 to provide an example of 

A. a bird that makes threatening postures with its wings 

B. a bird whose territorial behavior is extremely aggressive 

C. non-lethal contests for control of territory 

D. the limited aggressive behavior generally exhibited by birds 

19. The author mentions with their necks entwined in paragraph 2 in order 

A. to indicate that swans are really rather affectionate 

B. to emphasize how long swans' necks are 

C. to make the point that the swans are only pretending to hurt one another 

D. to create a mental image for the reader of fighting swans 

READING EXERCISE (Skills 7-8): Read the passage. 

Ella Deloria 

1 In was not until her posthum9us novel Waterlily was published in 1988 that Ella C. Deloria became known for her literary ability in addition to her already-established reputation in the academic arena of linguistics and ethnology. During her lifetime, she was recognized for the linguistic ability and cultural sensitivity that went into the production of a collection of traditional short stories entitled Dakota Texts (1932). After her death, her versions of a number of longer traditional stories and the novel Waterlily were published; with the publication of Waterlily came the recognition of her true literary ability and the awareness that it was the strength of her literary ability, in addition to her linguistic expertise and her deep cultural understanding, that had made her versions of traditional stories so compelling. 

2 Ella Cara Deloria was born into a Nakota-speaking family in 1889; however, she grew up among the Lakota people in North Dakota, where her father was a leader in the Episcopal Church. Her father, the son of a traditional Nakota medicine man, valued both the cultural traditions of his family and those of the country of his citizenship. As a result, Deloria primarily spoke Nakota at home and Lakota when she was out in the community, and she was well versed there in the cultural traditions of her Sioux ancestors (with a complex kinship structure in which all of a child's father's brothers are also considered fathers, all of a child's mother's sisters are also considered mothers, and all of the children of all these mothers and fathers are considered siblings). Her education, however, was in English, at the Episcopalian Saint Elizabeth Mission School and the All Saints School. After high school, she attended Oberlin College in Ohio for one year, and then she transferred to Columbia University to study linguistics under Franz Boas, the founder of American Indian linguistics. 

3 After graduating from Columbia, she was encouraged by Boas to collect and record traditional Lakota stories. She was in a unique position to take on this task because of her fluency in the Lakota language as well as in English, her understanding from childhood of the complexities and subtleties of Lakota culture, and her linguistic training from Columbia. The result of her research was the Dakota Texts, a bilingual collection of 64 short stories. To create this remarkable work, Deloria was able to elicit stories from venerable Sioux elders, without need for translators and with an awareness of appropriately respectful behavior. She listened to the stories as numerous generations had before her, and then, unlike previous generations, recorded them in writing-initially in Lakota and later in English. She transcribed them essentially as they were told but with her own understanding of the nuances of what was being told. 

4 In addition to the shorter stories that were published in Dakota Texts, Deloria spent 1937 working on transcribing a number of longer and more complicated texts, which were not published until after her death. "Iron Hawk: Oglala Culture Hero" (1993) presents the diverse elements of the culture-hero genre; "The Buffalo People" (1994) focuses on the importance of tribal education in building character; "A Sioux Captive" (1994) tells the story of a Lakota woman who rescued her husband from the Crow; "The Prairie Dogs" (1994) describes the sense of hope offered by the Sioux warrior-society ceremonies and dances. 

5 Her novel Waterlily, which was first published 40 years after it was completed and 17 years after her death, reflects her true literary talent as well as her accumulated understanding of traditional culture and customs. The novel recounts the fictional story of the difficult life of the title character, with a horrendous childhood experience as witness to a deadly enemy raid and a first marriage terminated by the untimely death of her husband in a smallpox epidemic, and comes to a close with the hopeful expectations of an impending second marriage. At the same time, it presents a masterful account of life in a nineteenth century Sioux community with its detailed descriptions of interpersonal relationships and attitudes, everyday tasks and routines, and special ceremonies and celebrations. 

GLOSSARY 

The Lakota, Nakota, and Dakota are related groups of people who are part of the Sioux nation. 

Questions 

1. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that, while she was alive, Ella Deloria 

A. did little to make use of her education in linguistics

B. achieved acclaim more for her transcriptions than for her novel 

C. was the published author of a number of types of fiction and nonfiction 

D. was recognized for the literary maturity of her novel 

2. Why does the author use the word however in paragraph 2? 

A. To emphasize that she was born in an earlier century 

B. To clarify the differences between the Lakota and the Dakota 

C. To show that she was raised in a different environment from the one where she was born D. To demonstrate that she was very different from other members of her family 

3. Why does the author include the information with a complex kinship structure in which all of a child's father's brothers are also considered fathers, all of a child's mother's sisters are also considered mothers, and all of the children of all these mothers and fathers are considered siblings in parentheses? 

A. To provide details to emphasize how the Nakota and the Lakota differed 

B. To introduce the idea that Deloria's education in English was completely different from her home life C. To provide an alternate explanation for Deloria's use of Nakota at home and Lakota in the community D. To provide an example of one cultural tradition of the Sioux 

4. Why does the author begin paragraph 3 with After graduating from Columbia A. To indicate that paragraph 3 follows paragraph 2 in chronological order 

B. To clarify that paragraph 3 describes Deloria's education at Columbia 

C. To recognize the importance of education throughout Deloria's life 

D. To demonstrate that paragraph 3 provides examples of a concept presented in paragraph 2 5. It is implied in paragraph 3 that Dakota Texts was written 

A. only in English B. only in Dakota 

C. in Dakota and Lakota D. in Lakota and English 

6. Why does the author mention an awareness of appropriately respectful behavior in paragraph 3? A. To show one way that Deloria was qualified to elicit stories from Sioux elders B. To show that Deloria's linguistic training had been effective 

C. To show the difference between Deloria's transcriptions and her novel 

D. To show why Deloria needed to work with a translator 

7. It can be inferred from paragraph 4 that "Iron Hawk: Oglala Culture Hero" was published 

A. in the same year that it was written B. just prior to Deloria's death 

C. long after it was transcribed D. long before Waterlily was published

 

8. Why does the author discuss "The Prairie Dogs" in paragraph 4? 

A. It was written by Deloria. 

B. It describes Deloria's own life story. 

C. It provides insight into rituals and dances. 

D. It was one of the earliest short stories that Deloria transcribed. 

9. It can be inferred from the passage that Waterlily was completed 

A. in 1937 B. in 1948 C. in 1954 D. in 1988 

10. Why does the author mention the untimely death of her husband in a smallpox epidemic in paragraph 5? 

A. It provides a harsh example of Waterlily's difficult life. 

B. It provides evidence of the historical existence of Waterlily. 

C. It demonstrates how unusual Waterlily's life in a nineteenth-century Sioux community was. D. It reinforces the overall message of hopelessness of Waterlily

READING REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-8): Read the passage. 

Early Autos 

1 America's passion for the automobile developed rather quickly in the beginning of the twentieth century. At the turn of that century, there were few automobiles, or horseless carriages, as they were called at the time, and those that existed were considered frivolous playthings of the rich.  They were rather 

5A



fragile machines that sputtered and smoked and broke down often; they were expensive toys that could not be counted on to get one where one needed to go; they could only be afforded by the wealthy class, who could afford both the expensive upkeep and the inherent delays that resulted from the use of a machine that tended to break down time and again.  These early automobiles required repairs so frequently both

5B



because their engineering was at an immature stage and because roads were unpaved and often in poor condition.  Then, when breakdowns occurred, there were no services such as roadside gas stations or tow 

5C



trucks to assist drivers needing help in their predicament.  Drivers of horse-drawn carriages considered 

5D



the horseless mode of transportation foolhardy, preferring instead to rely on their four-legged "engines," which they considered a tremendously more dependable and cost-effective means of getting around. 2 Automobiles in the beginning of the twentieth century were quite unlike today's models. Many of them were electric cars, even though the electric models had quite a limited range and needed to be recharged frequently at electric charging stations; many others were powered by steam, though it was often required that drivers of steam cars be certified steam engineers due to the dangers inherent in operating a steam-powered machine. The early automobiles also lacked much emphasis on body design; in fact, they were often little more than benches on wheels, though by the end of the first decade of the century they had progressed to leather-upholstered chairs or sofas on thin wheels that absorbed little of the incessant pounding associated with the movement of these machines. 

3 In spite of the rather rough and undeveloped nature of these early horseless carriages, something about them grabbed people's imagination, and their use increased rapidly, though not always smoothly. In the first decade of the last century, roads were shared by the horse-drawn and horseless variety of carriages, a situation that was rife with problems and required strict measures to control the incidents and accidents that resulted when two such different modes of transportation were used in close proximity. New York City, for example, banned horseless vehicles from Central Park early in the century because they had been involved in so many accidents, often causing injury or death; then, in 1904, New York state felt that it was necessary to control automobile traffic by placing speed limits of 20 miles per hour in open areas, 15 miles per hour in villages, and 10 miles per hour in cities or areas of congestion. However, the measures taken were less a means of limiting use of the automobile and more a way of controlling the effects of an invention whose use increased dramatically in a relatively short period of time. Under 5,000 automobiles were sold in the United States for a total cost of approximately $5 million in 1900, while considerably more cars, 181,000, were sold for $215 million in 1910, and by the middle of the 1920s, automobile manufacturing had become the top industry in the United States and accounted for 6 percent of the manufacturing in the country. 

1. Based on the information in paragraph 1, who would have been most likely to own a car in 1900? 

A. A skilled laborer 

B. A successful investor 

2. The word frivolous in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to 

C. A scholarship student D. A rural farmer 

A. Trivial B. Delicate C. Essential D. natural 3. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that it was necessary to repair early autos because of 

A. the elaborate engines B. the lack of roads 

C. the immature drivers D. the rough roads 

4. The author refers to four-legged "engines," in paragraph 1 in order to indicate that A. early autos had little more than an engine and wheels 

B. it was foolish to travel on a four-legged animal 

C. horses were an effective mode of transportation 

D. automobile engines were evaluated in terms of their horsepower 

5. Look at the four squares  that indicate where the following sentence can be added to paragraph 1. 

5



These horrendous road conditions forced drivers to use their automobiles on grooved, rutted,  and bumpy roads. 

Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage. 

5



6. The phrase many others in paragraph 2 refers to 

A. automobiles in the beginning of the twentieth century 

B. today's models 

C. electric models 

D. electric charging stations 

7. It is stated in paragraph 2 that the owners of steam-powered cars 

A. sometimes had to demonstrate knowledge of steam engineering 

B. had to hire drivers to operate their cars  

C. often had to take their automobiles to charging stations 

D. were often in danger because of the limited range of their automobiles 

8. Why does the author mention benches on wheels in paragraph 2? 

A. To show how remarkably automobile design had progressed

B. To show that car designs of the time were neither complex nor comfortable 

C. To indicate that early automobiles had upholstered chairs or sofas 

D. To emphasize how the early automobiles were designed to absorb the pounding of the machine on  the road 

9. The word incessant in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to 

A. Heavy B. Bothersome C. Jolting D. Continual 10. The phrase rife with in paragraph 3 could be replaced by 

A. full of 

B. surrounded by 

C. dangerous due to D. occurring as a result of 

11. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that the government of New York state believed that A. all horseless vehicles should be banned from all public parks 

B. strict speed limits should be placed on horse-drawn carriages 

C. horseless and horse-drawn vehicles should not travel on the same roads 

D. it was safer for cars to travel faster where there was less traffic and fewer people 

12. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in  paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. A. It was necessary to take a measured approach in dealing with inventions such as the automobile. B. The various laws were needed because the use of automobiles grew so fast. 

C. The dramatic look of the automobile changed considerably over a short period of time. D. It was important to lawmakers to discover the causes of the problems relating to automobiles. 

13. According to paragraph 3, it is NOT true that 

A. the total cost of the automobiles sold in the United States in 1900 was around $5 million B. sales of cars increased by more than 175,000 from 1900 to 1910 

C. automobile manufacturing was the top U.S. industry in 1920 

D. automobile manufacturing represented more than 5 percent of total U.S. manufacturing by 1925 READING SKILL 9: SELECT SUMMARY INFORMATION 

QUESTIONS ABOUT SUMMARY INFORMATION

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION 

A summary information chart is given

WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER

Because the answer demonstrates an understanding of the major  points and critical supporting information, the information needed to  answer the question is found throughout the passage 

HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION

 Read the topic stated in the summary chart carefully 

 Read the passage, focusing on the main ideas as they relate to the topic  stated in the summary chart 

 Read each answer choice, evaluating whether it is true information  according to the passage, false information according to the passage, or  not discussed in the passage 

 Eliminate any answers that are false or not discussed 

 For each statement that is true according to the passage, evaluate  whether it is a major factor related to the topic or is a major detail  Select the answers that are true and are major factors as your responses  Partial credit is possible, and your answers may be in any order



READING EXERCISE 9: An introductory sentence or a brief summary of each passage is provided below each passage. Complete the summary by selecting the answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. 

PASSAGE ONE (Question 1) Island Plant Life 

Islands are geographical formations that are completely surrounded by water, yet many islands are covered with a rich assortment of plant life. It may seem surprising that so much plant life exists on many islands, yet there are surprisingly simple explanations as to how the vegetation has been able to establish itself there. Some islands were formerly attached to larger bodies of land, while others were created on their own. Islands that were created when flooding or rising water levels cut them off from their neighbors often still have the plant life that they had before they were cut off. In cases where islands formed out of the ocean, they may have plant life from neighboring lands even though they were never actually attached to the neigh boring lands. Winds carry many seeds to islands; some plants produce extremely light seeds that

can float thousands of feet above the Earth and then drift down to islands where they can sprout and develop. Birds also carry seeds to islands; as birds move over open stretches of water, they can serve as the transportation system to spread seeds from place to place. 

This passage discusses the ways that plant life is able to develop on islands.

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Answer Choices (choose 3 to complete the chart): 

(1) Some seeds are able to float great distances in the air. 

(2) Some plant life existed before islands were cut off from larger bodies of land. 

(3) Some islands have many different varieties of plants. 

(4) Birds sometimes carry seeds to islands. 

(5) Some islands were created when rising water cut them off from larger bodies of land. (6) Some plant seeds are carried to islands by the wind. 

PASSAGE TWO (Question 2) Ben and Jerry 

1 All successful businesses are not established and run in the same way, with formal business plans, traditional organizational structures, and a strong focus on profits. Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, the entrepreneurs responsible for the highly successful ice cream business that bears their names, were businessmen with a rather unconventional approach. 

2 They were rather unconventional from the start, not choosing to begin their careers by attending one of the elite business schools but instead choosing to take a five-dollar correspondence course from Pennsylvania State University. They had little financial backing to start their business, so they had to cut corners wherever they could; the only location they could afford for the startup of their business was a gas station that they converted to ice cream production. Though this start-up was rather unconventional, they were strongly committed to creating the best ice cream possible, and this commitment to the quality of their product eventually led to considerable success. 

3 Even though they became extremely successful, they did not convert to a more conventional style of doing business. In an era where companies were measured on every penny of profit that they managed to squeeze out, Ben and Jerry had a strong belief that business should give back to the community; thus, they donated 7.5 percent of their pretax profit to social causes that they believed in. They also lacked the emphasis on executive salary and benefits packages that so preoccupy other corporations, opting instead for a five-to-one policy in which the salary of the employee receiving the highest pay could never be more than five times the salary of the employee receiving the lowest pay. 

This passage discusses Ben and Jerry's unconventional company.

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